The Impact of Real-Time Information flows provided by ERP in a hotel, hospitality management, and ICT literature

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AbstractEnterprise resource planning applications (ERP) have emerged as a way of automating repetitive processes and giving managers more complete and timely attitude to their work. ERP has excellent knowledge processing capability and the ability to share information in organizations. In the hospitality concept, there is an attractive offer to the hotel due to the current fragmentation of information systems. However, the centrality of the information and standardization of the processes offered by ERPs can affect the convenience of the hotel. The good flexibility required in the hotel is well secured. This paper presents a series of recommendations regarding the impact of real-time information flows provided by ERP in a hotel, hospitality management, and ICT literature. Enterprise resource planning applications (ERP) have emerged as a way of automating repetitive processes and giving managers more complete and timely attitude to their work. ERP has excellent knowledge processing capability and the ability to share information in organizations. In the concept of hospitality information systems make an attractive offer to the hotel due to the current disaster. However, the centrality of the information and standardization of the processes offered by ERPs can affect the convenience of the hotel. The good flexibility required in the hotel is well secured. This paper presents a series of recommendations regarding the impact of real-time information flows provided by ERP in a hotel, hospitality management, and ICT literature.INTRODUCTIONAs the hospitality industry goes into the era of information, there is a great interest in how this move will become a hotel organization. The changing forces that have emerged in information technology have changed the way in which hospitality works. A home client can give him a large number of tourist offers on the Internet, assessing the available information and the bookroom at the same time. Using technology, communication is rich, interactive and fast. How do these changes in the outdoor environment affect the hotel’s information processing capabilities? Initially, the speed of the flow of information is calculated, and secondly, there is a lot of information.The IH & RA report Think Tank successfully reports that it is important that hotel operators outline the need for “information” to convert the information speed to information. Of course, the hotel information system must meet productivity and flexibility needs. This will allow the hotel organization to understand and adapt better customer needs. Companies like Marriott and Radisson will not lead to changes in the organization of the hotel as a means of flexibility, testing, and flexibility of environmental conditions. For years of year, fragmented hotel information systems, applications that include specific functions, have little integration or little integration between the systems. The placement industry is often hindered by the prevalence of old systems; it is often difficult to update and often not compatible.Institutional resource planning (ERP) systems draw attention to their integrated approach and their ability to dissolve the information within the organization. Initially, they were developed for production-based organizations in the early 1980’s, in recent years these systems have been spread, including the services and the retail sector in this sector. The placement industry is attractive when ERP is included in the case of the information systems in the area to be dissolved. An important feature of ERP is its ability to function from a single, complete database for the whole and real-time organization between different functions. Real-time connection means when you enter one of the functions, the corresponding data also changes immediately. For example, when a seller sells, the information must be changed directly into the production, inventory and accounting functions of the organization.Of course, ERP is changing the structure, processes, and culture of the organization. Supervise hotel organization, and ERP focuses on this article, and in this document, It is said that the connection in real time can increase the flexibility of an organization at a rapid flow of information provided by the ERP. In this article, we are watching the organization of the hotels and the ERP elements for the first time. Later, it will present some proposals related to the impact of the ERP system on one hotel. Finally, the authors will provide the basis for future research in the field of information systems and hotel organization. ERP – this is a cheap solution for one hotel, and this article does not create a business case for this. The hotel looks at the organization in a theoretical perspective and describes the real-time integration effect provided by the ERP, regarding operating hospitality attitude. In this context, the authors will consider 4-star hotels and much more offer a wide range of category services with more than 200 rooms and classified categories. Due to the wide range of hotel operations, this document does not affect the viability of ERP over a certain amount of this article.ERP FUNCTIONSThey are multi-functional, integrated into nature and modulo. Founded in Walldorf, in Germany, SAP AG is a provider of enterprise-based enterprise planning software solutions that integrate processes within both enterprises and businesses and the business community. Introducing web interfaces and legible architectural architecture, ready for Internet from 1996, SAP works with companies crossing to the Internet business model. Table 1 of the modules found in SAP R / 3 in SAP ERP is a typical picture of the ERP functionality in the industry (Norris et al., 1998). Each of these functions is managed through an individual approach to the database and, more importantly, only through a user interface.Time-time integration and ERPReal-time integration is when data entry starts in one part of the system’s system results in real time. This should be distinguished from the interface; where an application made to a particular business receives data from the other in the batch mode. For example, a real estate management system (PMS) can be imported at certain intervals, called Point-of-Sale (POS), to integrate the billing process. It only means the real-time that data submitted from different points in the system is automatically displayed in the information system in real time. This information presented in the organization sets together business levels, and business roles and processes will be changed in this way. The compression of time can lead to pressure lines between certain jobs that work together, where time and coordination are handled together. Also, ERP operates through one database; so that data entry from some points in the organization can be an essential table to make important decisions.This is the ability to a real-time knowledge of ERP processes in real time, which requires the organization’s reorganization as there are other clearer processes. In other words, we need to change the way you work, in particular, the relationship between the various functions, since SAP makes it necessary to process processes that affect data flow and information in the redesigned software. Connect in real time, created by ERP, is the flow of information within the organization, as well as the business flow. Davenport (Davenport, 1998) states that the largest ERP configuration has caused the balance of what you want to do with the way the system works. Also, since it includes an ERP module, modifying companies and table configuration for the system’s sites select your needs. Configuration is made through tables, based on the “best practice” system, and companies can choose from their best practice.Good practice – its pre-defined processes specific to the sector, which is provided to customers as a support tool for the implementation of supplier companies. Modules – A tuning method, as companies, can choose a variety of modules, such as finance, content management, and integrating the processes around them. However, due to higher ERP privatization, the smaller benefit (Davenport, 1998). Set up a modular approach, which allows organizations to define the amount of integration, which corresponds to the organizational operation. But why can companies not make the full integration of real time? In the end, if ERP is not the heart problem, which will set a set of information fragmentation? As indicated by Davenport (1998), «ERP has paradoxical effects on the organizational structure and culture that will be organized on the apartment structure, flexible and democratic organization, on the one hand, and centralized control of knowledge and experience.” ERP aims to contact each function and act in the organization to create a huge machine with one controller.Davenport also said. “If a company needs to follow a more efficient but less process Filling in the flexible (customer service) after creating ERP, the biggest advantage is also subject to the risk “Compaq Corporation is careful to study the ERP effect, before deciding on the privatization of the system Orders to maintain original flexibility, received over the years. In this regard, with the help of the selected components for Indigo, the Compaq did not have the most competitive advantage. Therefore, carefully check the ERP impact on the organization before its acceptance; This is more in a hotel with a unique and challenging working environment. While organizations can use information technology to improve the flexibility they need to scrutinize their processes and the role of technology and areas where flexibility can help you understand.While the hotel products are becoming more and more commodities, a competitive advantage – strengthening the flexibility of intangible features of the service that provides the interaction with the people, rather than embedded technologies in the provision of services. Given the flexibility of the work of the hotel, it will be considered in the next section regarding ERP. Today, institutional builders also offer industry-specific solutions to companies, architects based on modules and related systems. SAP industry solutions built on the R / three highways basis and is already pre-configured and customized for the specific industries.These are the common solutions for the specific industries and can be further modified using the ABAP / 4 to interfaces existing legacy solutions or extensions to SAP to write an internal language. For example, SAP is serving food and non-food, retail, transport, and tourism products. To achieve different goals, ERP differs from PMS ERP and PMS. ERP focuses on resource management, and PMS focuses on service offers that are very different from ERP. As a result, the ICP is dependent on the structure of the agreed departmental tasks; although ERP is structured on processes that comprise some departments. For example, the sales transaction order includes the sale of the function, the account (to assess the customer’s credit potential), the module inventory evaluation of the content management module and the integration of the modules related to the production and control of planning. It is clear that all of these processes are taken across the workflow and that they need to work in real time. Indeed, ERP is built on processes based on the best practices of the industry, as a result of logic for this reason. Again, the size of the ICP is limited to the component of the room and is integrated with the backup functions. ERP can be registered to present a general picture of the hotel, as it will function from an extensive database and covers the entire organization.HOTEL AND RESPONSIBILITYThe flexibility of services and products Reeves and Bednar (1995) classify the hotel’s results as a means of measuring and improving the quality of the service. While this section covers the quality of service areas, this classification of services serves as a basis to understand service flexibility in hotel products. Based on this sense of flexibility, the basic concepts can be considered on how ERP can make different components of service output. Extensive evidence shows that the hotel has a standard product release (in other words, the number of services offered in the guest room) and individual prints (for example, a baby’s baby bed). Also, these standardized and customized results have tangible and intangible components. The flexibility of services is in the information and transaction components that are included in standardization and customization of the hotel product and extensions from content to tangible spaces. The main here is to assess the role of information processing systems in the operation of the service, the separation of the two components of the service flexibility for information and processes across computer flexibility. Functional flexibility and hotel personality. Atkinson (1985) defines functional flexibility, as a variety of employees and the ability to move tasks to perform different tasks. For example, a restaurant should be able to provide a service in one bar, preparing a cock and the registration of guests.Smith (1994) offers a more practical attitude, which divides the functional flexibility within the organization, the need for workers in other work as necessary or boundary integration, when work is integrated with the problem can be moved from one person to another one. Riley and Lockwood (Riley and Lockwood, 1997) indicated that functional flexibility could be used in two different approaches: a “planned” approach, where managers always have a restructuring of the work and a “deal” approach on the operational requirements for a certain period. Functional flexibility can increase the flexibility of the organization; This means that the structure and process of the organization can be easily changed. At the hotel, significant processing needs to be done in the field of function. The functional flexibility of the organization’s personnel will not provide guarantees and more effective efficiency, but it can improve the efficiency of work.ERPs and HOTEL ORGANIZATIONAL ISSUESThe traditional hierarchical organizational structure of the hotel and its impact on the provision of well-documented services. Divisions, similar to the hotel structure, were built as a traditional functional organization, such as closed cylinders. Its functional pyramid requires surgery, compared to the organizational structure of the hotel, to facilitate coordination between departments and increase flexibility. Leaders in the hospitality industry said that Arthur Andersen’s forum should be simple, flexible and accessible to the hotel. In this context, ERPs can control information centers and have the opportunity to create worse, more flexible and democratic governance structures. One of the studies of the structure of the apartment hotel organization Chacko (1998) – a seamless organization that divides the team into two divisions: “Guest Service” and “internal services.”Because the problems of the hotel’s traditional organizational structures are based on the need for development, authorization, better coordination and greater flexibility. Awareness of the required flexibility of property can be better understood through the development of two levels of the structural plan (maintenance and servicing of internal people) and a term optimized information stream that includes three information streams in the hotel’s plane structure. From inside, there is information flow between multi-dimensional areas of customer service. The arrows that arise between the guest service and the internal service flow two-way information between the guest service and the internal service areas. The third type of miscellaneous information flows distributed among internal service groups. At the same time, this model describes the nature of the flow of information provided by ERP. This model is about how quickly information is displayed in ERP.It is envisaged that information systems that produce data in real time can support postal replacement by enhancing planning and forecasting operations. We can say that planning and forecasting provide functional flexibility through “internal services” functions, which directly affect the area of ​​”guest service” and the flow of information between internal services and service areas. In this context, Chacko (1998) includes functional flexibility, which means that internal service officers are responsible for the preparation of critical business information, and improving the efficiency of its activities by exposing all of the expertise of the tendering team of support reports. Technology has a vital role not only in facilitating the exchange of information, but also for the transfer of new information fast (p.137). Proposals for the ERP application in the hotel.The following research recommendations are based on the literature of modern hospitality and the IS literature on ERP. Due to the fragmentation of information on the hotel information systems and the fact that PMS has a basic hotel information system, rather than ERP PMS and is the basis for research proposals described below. The purpose of the proposals – to imagine the impact of ERP in a hotel in the organizational perspective that will be facilitated as a guide to the development of the hotel’s ERP implementation strategy. All offers are based on the standard ERP package without any settings. These proposals show a better understanding of the role of integrated information systems and their impact on the hotel. The following studies should be tested using the ERP application in the real hotel. The results of the experimental application can be used to develop an operating model of the hotel, supported by ERP. It is a stable strategy that reduces the spread of labor supply and reduces the need for other forms of long-term labor supply, such as temporary work and overtime – Flexibility and Lockwood Riley. Also, relaxation limits – this type of functional flexibility, with the end of barriers within the organization, and could be more effective. A planned approach requires continuous resource planning through better training and planning.However, for effective border breaks, a comprehensive information system that employees indicate is required to work with other jobs. Also, this type of information gives employees an opportunity to develop a perspective on how all departments have worked consistently to provide a service. This can be used through a real-time information system, such as ERP. P1: The flow of information in real time, provided between the ERP maintenance areas and the internal service of guest services will have a positive impact on the planned approach to its functional flexibility. In this case, ERP may act as an integrated, proactive human resource management system that regularly monitors and controls the training and work of personnel. Also, ERPs can exchange data with forecasting software, present sales data and provide data in real time on operational planning, although they are not forecasts. Chacko (1998): “The team is out of the approach to problem-solving of the speaker’s problem in the hotel’s guest service, they must be educated in all the procedural elements, as it is a reception, restaurant, room service or other guest service area .” (p P2: The flow of information in real time, provided between the ERP maintenance areas and the internal service of guest services will have a positive impact on the approach to functional flexibility.Service flexibilityIt should be remembered that ERP was originally developed first for the solution of the production organizations. Focusing best on the production, delivery, and delivery of the ERP’s final business cycle is a solution to improve the communication process and optimize resource management for all online functions. On the other hand, the host management has complicated the various functions associated with the operation (Ingram, 1995). The rooms, food and alcoholic beverages are the three components of the hotel business, all of which go through different business cycles. Despite the fact that food production is a production process, the retail products of alcoholic beverages have been sold at retail due to their associated images. The sale of cameras is an inventory function. In addition to the irrevocable and impenetrable nature of hotel products operating on an average with a wide range of services, and in many cases, it is necessary to take fast action to ensure that hotels have unforeseen problems and service interruptions. Compared to the manufacturing cycles of manufacturing organizations, the hotel business cycle has varied and varied changes. The question here is that ERP can handle these changes in the hotel business chain and continue to improve the suite of activities across the hotel value chain. As well as that,The question is whether the business cycle is optimized, due to the impact of the initial service flexibility? As a result, the critical element of ERP is to provide whether the workflow of the organization is compatible with the standard ERP package and embedded processes. We should not forget that ERP makes a centralized control of process information and standardization. For example, hotel registration should be standardized based on certain performance parameters, depending on ERP requirements. However, the desired flexibility of the guest may not meet the performance requirements standardized by ERP. The main advantage of the hotel’s value chain is to tolerate flaw and supply of services.When a standardization service delivery process requires a way of ensuring consistency, the hotel needs to provide flexibility due to the inconvenience of the operating environment. The nature of the decision in the hotel is more tactical than strategic. As mentioned earlier, due to its intangible product in the hotel – the interaction with the team is high, and the guests and the official rules and processes are often abused to meet the needs of the guests. Its simultaneous production and measurement is also a hotel that is unique to the environment of hotel operations compared to a production organization. For this reason, the standardization of processes at the beginning of the service operation will optimize the hotel value chain to prevent the flexible component of the services.ConclusionAs information about guests becomes more dynamic, the need for additional processing of information becomes more critical. ERP can meet fast and advanced computer requirements at the hotel. When considering a hotel in the context of organizational flexibility, ERPs do not make any concessions: they can help in functional flexibility and block processes and damage the intangible flexible component in the development of the information necessary for the flexibility of the service. Each hotel organization must take this balance into account in a flexible manner before configuring the ERP for their own needs. However, the ERP functions that hotel organizations should not ignore are more coordinated, more functional, improve the exchange of information and guarantee to help expand opportunities. Remember that the very complicated disintegration of information in hotel organizations is what ERP can solve.However, when it is believed that the ERP has a significant impact on the organization of the hotel, each hotel organization must assume its implementation strategy according to their needs and organizational objectives. It is necessary to do a great job to develop a model of the hotel business in the context of support for integrated information systems. The proposals presented here represent an indicative basis in the context of support for integrated information systems to address key issues of rotation in the current hotel industry. By using functional and service flexibility, information exchange and authorization as key parameters, it is possible to develop an integrated structure of information systems that develop organizational flexibility and coordination. The organizational problems discussed in the proposals also serve as a basis for understanding the flow of information and the exchange of information between departments. The integrated information structure that must be developed must be scalable to add various functions and preserve the unique needs and flexibility of each hotel. The study must take into account the complexity of the traditional construction of the hotel.ReferencesLee, j., Siau, K., & Hong, S. (2003). Enterprise Integration with ERP and EAI.Muscatello, J., & Chen, I. (2008). Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) Implementations: Theory and Practice. International Journal of Enterprise Information Systems, 4 (1), pp. 63-83.Davenport, T. (2000). Mission Critical: Realizing the Promise ok Enterprise Systems. Boston, Massachusetts: Harvard Business School Press.Alshawi, S., Themistocleous, M., & Almadani, R. (2004). Integrating diverse ERP Systems: a case study. The Journal of Enterprise Information Management, 17 (6), pp. 454-462.Pang, L. (2001). Manager’s Guide to Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) Systems. Information Systems Control Journal, 4, pp. 47-52.Themistocleous, M., Irani, Z., O’Keefe, R., & Paul, R. (2001). ERP Problems and Application Integration Issues. 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