The Composition of Brain Essay

Published: 2021-07-13 17:10:04
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AbstractThe brain is sensitive to lipid peroxide, which indicates oxidation degradation of oxidation stress and lipids. Root oxidation without an electron “confused” from lipids in cell membranes, can cause modification of cell damage to the structure of the protein and the function of the membrane protein. An oxidation series can be initiated on this process, including H2O2.Free radical oxidation is an important starting point for iron. Responsible for the reaction of peroxidation lipids in rat tissue homogenates can be harmful to lipid peroxidation catalyst, as it can be initiated and propagate lipid peroxidation. Lipid peroxidation homogenate by fracas The Fenton reaction uses free radicals (-OH and -O2) for self-initiation of fatty acid-lipid peroxidation fatty. In this experiment, to investigate the ability of antioxidants to prevent cell damage using two antioxidant α-tocopherol and quercetin. In the data, the Fenton reaction caused by the small principle (MDA) was the maximum concentration.IntroductionOxidation is a lipid oxidation degradation process. During this process, there are free radicals such as superoxide, hydroxyl, and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Free radicals have unbalanced oxygen forms, and the oxygen-free forms require the Valence ring as an outer shell, and of which comes electronically mismatched. Free electrons are very reactive due to unbalanced state electrons inappropriate. As a result, free roots need to find the stable electronic. Hydrogen-air joints are a suitable electronic source of the fatty acids beads. There is a process through lipid peroxidation: initiation, winding replication and, during which electrophilic reels form highly reactive. These aldehydes respond to a group CH2 to make the roots of CH. Then respond to roots CH roots with O2 for peroxyl lipid roots. During playback, peroxyl reacts with CH2 and forms lipid hydroperoxide. Hydroperoxide can be exhausted to obtain multiple oxides of peroxide lipids, such as malonosny alder (MDA). Fenton (Fe2 + and H2O2) reaction gets to obtain lipid peroxide in the liver, as well as free roots (especially -OH). MDA is the ultimate product of lipid peroxide, which is very important for indicators of oxidizing stress diseases, such as atherosclerosis. MDA also responds to the thrombotic acid to test pink light, known as reactive acid thberbarbituric (TBARS) substances. Α-tocopherol can be stopped by lip peroxide, which acts as an antioxidant, which eliminates the manifold process.ResultsFinal concentration of MDA (mM)OD values0.12.9730.052.9560.012.410Table of Own MDAKnown amount of MDA (nmol/ml)OD values00.00012.50.070250.145500.2601000.550Table for lecturer dataTable of own OD valuesContents of tubesOD valueConcentration of MDA (nmol/ml)Control0.0529.455Fe 2+0.09817.818Fe 2+H2O20.10719.455CatalaseFe 2+H2O20.15027.273QuercetinFe 2+H2O20.0519.273 Class for a-tocopherolOD values from 7 experimentsControlFe 2+Fe 2+H2O2CatalaseFe 2+H2O2α-tocopherol Fe 2+H2O20.0410.0310.1210.0870.0760.0330.0410.1580.0770.0570.0660.0910.1240.0460.0840.0470.0620.1260.0720.0600.0440.0510.1210.0870.0760.0380.0540.1750.0490.0820.0510.0430.1660.0380.065Mean0.0460.0530.1420.0650.071Mean +/- SEM0.0420.0460.1330.0570.067Concentration of MDA (nmol/ml)7.6368.36424.18210.36412.182Class data for QuercetinOD values from 7 experimentsControlFe 2+Fe 2+H2O2CatalaseFe 2+H2O2QuercetinFe 2+H2O20.0750.0800.1620.1350.0870.0800.0810.1510.1410.0900.0410.0910.1760.1150.0620.0520.0980.1070.1500.0510.0560.0610.1800.0930.0590.0420.0860.1030.0790.0490.0640.0760.1430.1190.084Mean0.0590.0820.1460.1190.069+/- SEM0.0530.0780.1340.1090.062Concentration of MDA (nmol/ml)9.63614.18224.36419.81811.273The above graph displays the concentration level of the MDA (mM). There are no significant variations in the OD values.The above graph shows a strong linear relationship between the variables. The graph represents a straight-line which shows linearity among the variables.The concentration chart shows a different concentration of all the elements used in the experiment. Catalase has the highest concentration level whereas Quercetin has the lowest concentration chart.In the above graph, all values are distributed with a categorised class of a-tocopherol. There is no significant variation in the variables.The final graph represents the class data for Quercetin. There is a comparison of means and concentration of all the acids (variables).DiscussionA critical step in the degradation pathogenesis in lipid membranes. These reactive oxygen species (ROS) lipid peroxidation, such as hydrogen peroxide, a polyunsaturated fatty acid attack comes from a spontaneous chain reaction. The cause to initiate the reaction in C2 store roots in the production of 100 peroxyl radical roots. An effect of lipid peroxidation because it can cause severe tissue damage, leading to severe illness such as asthma, atherosclerosis and kidney disorders. Under normal conditions, ERO is produced at lower levels of the body; it is necessary for normal cellular function, as well as the production of the effect of antioxidants because of the reason is to protect the body from harmful free radicals. Antioxidants to neutralise peroxide free radicals, oxidative stress cells protection. Antioxidants such as dietary antioxidants such as vitamin E (α-tocopherol) versus lipid peroxidation in a rat liver homogenate quercetin. Α tocopherol is the possibility of reducing oxidation state high oxidation (Esterbauer et al. 1991).The data show that experimental data set little OD average composed of the standard deviation bar patients increased leading to a dangerous NBC to change the shape of the 4-5 tube. As shown in Figure 4, shows a higher concentration of MDA (M / G) 3 tube which is strongly oxidation conditions. 4, this figure shows a decrease in MDA is shown in the effects of peroxidation such as percephalol pink tocopherol addition product and lipids, fatty acids showed that self-breaking in the homogenate cycle of liver. The reduced concentration of the communications presented in MDA-tocopherol is a peak in the 45 m / g and m decreased to 24 MDA / ml.Two 500 700 and SEM used to compare comparable to each other for two different groups because they are in different conditions. Figure 2 Figure 5; and (for 500) with a mutation in 700 more considerable change from higher values ​​above 500 shows reproducibility; the reliability is lower. The arrangement of Figure 5, and Figure 2 is less than 500; show the results show that the security of more and more scattered. The data points were taken (A-B), which is the highest value was detected in the OD duct, 3 Fe2 + and H2O2 gives the highest concentration of MDA (M / ml). The two television shows that both groups of data sets from the same finesse and reduce the concentration of MDA in the presence of antioxidants and reduce lipid peroxidation (MDA a product of anhydrous lipid metabolism, pink produced from addition) and their free radicals by producing graded anti-oxidants. Using the standard curve to determine the concentration of each quercetin antioxidant reduces the amount of MDA involves a reduction in free radical power and MDA concentration (buffer). When you compare with tocopherol, is less than about half the concentration of free radicals. The results show that the level of oxidative stress of protein now antioxidants (Botsoglou, 1994).It is possible that the improvements made to note that the damage to the sample used for comparison purposes, increasing the supply of antioxidants to display different tend to reduce free radicals to antioxidants. Also, the level of individuals in the data collection of the error of not, laboratory tests, requested that in the costs and reduce costs, and from there, through his own experience. Antioxidants reduce the concentration of MDA (M / G) in vitro prevented lipids from oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation in agonist cells. Quercetin completely discharged local concentration of MDA homogenate indicator rat tie lipid peroxidation is impossible due to the nature of free radicals (Fenton reaction), the natural inclination of the antioxidant. This was a significant reduction in MDA-tocopherol concentrations but was only 50%. It appears that the regulation of cellular lipid free radicals and reduce the aliquot of facilities to protect against oxidative stress, and it is reduced to tissue loss.REFERENCESEsterbauer, H., Schaur, R.J. and Zollner, H. (1991) Chemistry and Biochemistry of 4-Hydroxynonenal, Malonaldehyde and Related Aldehydes; Free Rad. Biol. Med. 11, 81-128.Botsoglou, N.A. et al. (1994) Rapid, Sensitive, and Specific Thiobarbituric Acid Method for Measuring Lipid Peroxidation in Animal Tissue, Food and Feedstuff Samples; J. Agric. Food Chem. 42, 1931- 1937.Carbonneau, M.A. et al. (1991) Free and Bound Malondialdehyde Measured as Thiobarbituric Acid Adduct by HPLC in Serum and Plasma; Clin. Chem. 37, 1423-1429.Bull, A.W. and Marnett, L.J. (1985) Determination of Malondialdehyde by Ion-Pairing High- Performance Liquid Chromatography; Analyst. Biochem. 149, 284-290.Oxford Biomedical Research, unpublished data.Liu, J. et al. (1997) Assay of Aldehydes from Lipid Peroxidation: Gas Chromatography-MassSpectrometry Compared to Thiobarbituric Acid; Analyst. Biochem. 245, 161-166.

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