Ten Developments and Events

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Chapter 4: Question 1: Ten Developments and Events  This chapter number four deals with African bondage during early eighteenth century of American Revolution.  The English kings distributed their vast lands, even whole colonies, to their dependents, and they granted special charters for the right to establish manorial in America with dependent land holdings and manorial courts. But the early penetration of capitalism into the economy and the abundance of lands that became accessible to colonization as a result of the displacement and destruction of the native Indian population did not allow feudal relations to develop here. American cities never knew the true guild system. The regulation of production, proceeding from the colonial authorities, did not receive a complete character.The first event that I deem to be most important in chapter 4th was economic and social development of the English colonies in North America began with the stage already achieved by the metropolis. For example the Venture Smith defied the colonial slave system. True, for a whole century the British authorities made efforts to plant in America large feudal land tenure.Second most important event that I deem is the high tide of colonial slavery; the most important feature of the development of capitalism in the North American continent was the slavery of Africans and the slave trade. The reasons for the widespread use of slave piles in the colonies consisted primarily in the fact that a large number of small producers easily acquired here the main means of production – land. As a result, the supply of labor in the colonies was very limited and wage labor was expensive. The slavery of the Africans, therefore, was brought to life by the needs of capitalist development in the historically developed conditions of a shortage of workers.Third most important event is slave life in the South because the early eighteenth century was the starting point of slavery embedment in southern England colonies. American plantation slavery was radically different from the slavery of the ancient formation. The planter unites in one person the capitalist and the landowner; in the plantation economy, with the presence of slaves, the business is carried out by the capitalists, and production there from the very beginning is designed for the world market. The plantation economy, based on slave labor, was therefore an appendage to the capitalist system at an early stage of its development.Fourth most important event was the quality of life of slaves in north and in relation to the African slaves who tried to resist monstrous exploitation; the planters of the southern colonies used the most brutal punishments: they stigmatized their face, cut off their ears and their right hand. The murder of the insurgent African was encouraged by a special premium of 455 pounds of tobacco and yet in this period (until the end of the 18thcentury.) There were over 50 revolts of Africans.Fifth most important event was raising population of slaves because during the early 18th century, the number of slaves in the southern colonies continued to increase continuously. It exceeded the number of whites in South Carolina and almost equaled it in Virginia. Attempts to prohibit the slave trade undertaken by some colonies invariably encountered resistance from the metropolis. Liverpool merchants made profit on the slave trade; its participants were English lords and bishops; finally, in this trade, the American planters themselves, who needed a constant influx of labor, were also interested.Sixth event that I deem to be the most important was resisting slavery. The disturbances that arose in various colonies did not outgrow the local framework; the contradictions between farmers and large landowners in conditions of an abundance of land were resolved by the fact that farmers left for the West and occupied lands in the order of squatter (unauthorized occupation of vacant land). Sometimes landowners of the colonies or companies of land speculators made claims to these lands, which, with the help of the sheriffs, drove the poor from their plots, ravaged and betrayed their poor huts. Farmers stubbornly resisted, violence responded to violence, and this struggle became a common occurrence in the borderland. Most often these lands were hunting grounds of indigenous inhabitants of the country – the Indians, and with them the colonists entered into an equally fierce struggle.Seventh event is negotiation bondage; white people discovered that it was not possible to have full control over the life of slaves and they learnt their lesson from day to day realities while living with enslaved people. Finally savvy master learnt that incentive system was the best option get more work done by giving slaves a little share of power over their lives and it was quite a bit motivating.Eighth event which seems to be most important in the chapter four is running away of slaves from their masters. It was reported in newspapers that many slaves runaway. Newspapers even reported that masters offered rewards for slaves capture and there is a great record of advertisements of this type.Ninth most important event is the Fort Mose, which is known as first free black town. This town was developed in Spanish Florida by Francisco. This fort consisted of stout walls and black defended this fort till the end of their life. This fort remained in the memory as the sign of freedom for Africans.Tenth most important even that I deem to be is the identification of black people as African American. This started when masters assigned a new name to black people. Cruelty compelled Africans to think about to have an identity which has collective means and all African can stand under a single umbrella of identification and this is how they become African American from Africans.Question 2: Interesting information in the chapterInformation in the chapter four that interest me most is during the early eighteenth century Slavery in the United States was a legal institution for the possession of people (mainly Africans and African Americans) as a property that operated in the United States of America in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, from the time of independence to the end of the American civil war. Slavery existed in British North America from the very beginning of colonization and was legalized in all thirteen colonies at the time of the adoption of the Declaration of Independence. Information that interested me least in this chapter is by the beginning of the American Revolution, the status of a slave was legislatively enshrined as a racial-caste trait associated with African descent. When the Constitution of the United States was ratified, there were relatively few free black people among citizens entitled to vote (male property owners).Ch.4 Question 3White colonizers owed much to the Indians, from whom they learned to reduce the forest, to cultivate previously unknown to Europeans cultures – tobacco, indigo, corn, tomatoes, etc. In the illustrious hunters of the dense forests, the frontier pioneers adopted hunting techniques, as well as tactics of fighting in the rasypnom which subsequently rendered them a great service in the struggle for the independence of the colonies.A lot of the first large American capitals were made on trade with the Indians, who bought precious furs for a pittance, and when the Indians were almost destroyed, – on speculations taken from their lands. Following the example of the Spaniards in Mexico, Peru, and other Latin American countries, the British colonialists, including the Puritans of New England, attempted to convert the Indians to slavery but failed. Following the Portuguese, who put at the end of the XV century? The founding of the African slave trade, and their closest successors – the British and the Dutch, American merchants and ship-owners also turned to the slave trade as a source of huge profits. They bought treacle in the West Indies and distilled it in rum at numerous distilleries in New England. On the west coast of Africa, rum was the main means of payment for the purchase of African slaves; the price of the African was 100 gallons of rum, i.e., £ 10. They resold them to the West Indies and the American colonies for 30-60 pounds. About the African slaves who tried to resist monstrous exploitation, the planters of the southern colonies used the most brutal punishments: they stigmatized their face, cut off their ears and their right hand. The murder of the insurgent African was encouraged by a special premium of 455 pounds of tobacco. And yet in this period (until the end of the 18 century.) There were over 50 revolts of Africans.Chapter 5: Question 1: Ten Developments and Events The first event that I deem to be most important in chapter five is the Haitian Revolution is the only successful slave revolt in history that occurred in the French colony of San Domingo in 1791-1803, as a result of which the colony (which changed its name to Haiti) gained independence from France. Britain tried to take France from her colony, but the British army was also defeated. Arriving Napoleon’s fleet also failed to suppress the uprising. Haiti became the first republic under the control of former slaves.The second event that I deem to be most important in chapter five is November 30, 1803 Jean Jacques Dessalines became Governor-General of San Domingo. January 1, 1804, proclaimed the independence of San Domingo from France, the island was returned to the old Indian name – Haiti. In February-April 1804 there was a massacre of the white population, during which 3 to 5 thousand people died. As a result, only mulattoes and Negroes remained in the country. Only three categories of whites survived the slaughter: Polish soldiers who deserted from the French expeditionary corps, a small group of German colonists and a group of doctors . On September 22, 1804, Dessalin proclaimed himself Emperor Jacques I. On May 20, 1805, a new constitution was adopted that confirmed the abolition of slavery.The third event that I deem to be most important in chapter five is at the end of the 18The slave-owning plantation farm, specializing mainly in the cultivation of sugar cane, was the basis of the economy of San Domingo and determined the social relations that existed there. The slave who cultivated the plantations was the main producer, the slave-owner-planter-the rightful owner of the slave, the products of his labor, tools and means of production. Half a million slaves were cultivating 3,300,000 acres of land in San Domingo, which was in the hands of 4,000-5,000 planters. The basic division of the inhabitants of the colony on social grounds was supplemented by a very complex system of relationships between different population groups.The fourth event that I deem to be most important in chapter five is the battles of Lexington and Concorde are the first armed clashes during the War of Independence. They occurred on April 19, 1775 in the cities of Lexington, Concord, in Middlesex, Lincoln, Menotti (now Arlington) and Cambridge, near Boston. These encounters began hostilities between Britain and its thirteen colonies in continental North America.The fifth event that I deem to be most important in chapter five is July 8, 1777 Vermont became the first in the US to abolish slavery. It was here that the first North American constitution was adopted, proclaiming universal suffrage for men and freedom for all people regardless of the color of their skin. But experts are ambivalent about this historical document. As the Vermont Constitution influenced the fate of American slaves – in the material RT.The sixth event that I deem to be most important in chapter five is Black slaves arrived in America with Dutch settlers in 1619. The first two dozen slaves of the American continent were in Virginia, which became a breeding ground for slavery. But if in the beginning of the 17th century there were only 20 of them, then in 150 years the number of slaves was already several million. Only by the end of the 18th century, the most worthy of Americans began to compare the lives of oppressed Africans with their own destiny under the yoke of the English.The seventh event that I deem to be most important in chapter five is France admired the successes of Americans – the intellectual circles of France resented feudalism and privileges. However, the royal government supported the colonies, guided not so much ideological as geopolitical considerations: the French government wanted to repay Britain after the defeat of France in 1763. In order to enlist the support of the French, Benjamin Franklin arrived in Paris in 1776. The capital of France quickly appreciated his wit and visionary mind, and this was of great importance for the realization of his plans.The eighth event that I deem to be most important in chapter five is the Franco-American Treaty of 1778 on the Union – signed. The conclusion of the Franco-American treaty was preceded by lengthy negotiations. The Americans did everything in their power to speed up the signing of the treaty, while Verzhon (see) dragged out the negotiations until, in December 1777, he learned about the Americans’ victory in Saratov and received no information that a peace treaty could soon be signed between the US and England contract.The ninth event that I deem to be most important in chapter five is under the Franco-American Treaty, France pledged to protect the freedom, independence and sovereignty of the United States, and the United States guaranteed the inviolability of French possessions in America. In addition, the Franco-American Treaty provided for France’s right to declare claims to English possessions in the West Indies and the right of the United States to claim the possessions of England on the North American continent and in Bermuda, France and the United States pledged not to conclude an armistice with Britain without mutual agreement.The tenth event that I deem to be most important in chapter five is despite the obligation not to conclude peace with England without the knowledge and consent of its ally, the United States in 1783 concluded a separate treaty with England (see the Treaty of Versailles). Since 1794, after the conclusion of the Jay Treaty (see Jay Treaty) and the US adoption of a policy of neutrality in the war of the first coalition against France, the Franco-American treaty actually lost its force.Question 2The most interesting part of this chapter for me was In Art. VIII Franco-American treaty was specifically stipulated that both sides would conclude peace with England only after it recognized the independence of the United States. At the same time, a trade agreement was signed, as well as a secret protocol providing for the possibility of Spain joining the Franco-American alliance.Least interesting part of the chapter five for me was freedom fever in south, this was because restrictions on blacks to file petition in the courts and they stepped up to agitation against it and demanded liberty. Even after throwing the city under armed operations for a whole week whites failed to control the blacks.Question 3The price of a slave from $ 300 in 1795 increased to $ 900 in 1849 and $ 1,500-2,000 on the eve of the civil war. The intensification of slave labor and the exploitation of slaves intensified drastically.  All this led to a new aggravation and a new upsurge in the liberation movement of the Africans. A wave of revolts of the Africans engulfed in the first half of the 19th century. All south of the US was also associated with the revolutionary movement of the Africans in the West Indies at the end of the 18th and early 19th centuries. However, planters were not going to voluntarily give up power. In 1820, as a result of the Missouri compromise, they achieved the establishment of a boundary of slavery at 36 ° 30 ‘north latitude. In 1850, under the pressure of planters, Congress passed a new law on fugitive slaves, much more severe than the law of 1793.A pre-threatening outbreak of civil war in the United States was the civil war in Kansas, followed by the John Brown uprising (1859). Brown (1800-1859), a white farmer from Richmond (Ohio), a prominent abolitionist and “secret road” figure, planned to make a march to Virginia, raise a general slave revolt and establish a free state in the mountains of Maryland and Virginia as a base for the struggle for the liberation of all slaves.On the night of October 16, 1859, Brown with a small detachment of 22 men (five of whom were Africans) moved to Harpers Ferry and captured the arsenal. However, John Brown’s campaign was not sufficiently prepared. Left without support, Brown’s squad was surrounded and after a fierce battle was crushed.Question 4The severely wounded John Brown was captured, accused of high treason and the incitement of slaves to rebellion and sentenced to hanging. In his last speech at the trial, Brown rejected all the charges against him and pleaded guilty to only one thing – his intention to free the slaves.The execution of John Brown caused an outbreak of outrage all over the world and brought the crisis that broke out in 1861. The first blow was brought by the planters: in 1860, after the election of President of A. Lincoln, the representative of the North, they announced the withdrawal of several southern states from the Union, and in early 1861 attacked the troops of the northerners at Fort Sumter. Thus began the civil war of the North and the South.Having freed themselves from slavery from the planters, they fell into bondage to the same planters and were forced to work on slavery conditions from their previous masters by hired workers or tenants. “Slavery has been abolished, long live slavery!” – So determined the position of one of the reactionary figures of that era.In the years 1768-1771, the struggle of farmers in North Carolina was unfolded. The farmer organization “Regulators” formed there demanded a decrease in rent, a reduction in salaries to officials, and the participation of farmers in colonial self-government. This movement reached considerable success at first, but in 1771 it was crushed by the royal governor Troyon with the help of military force.The disturbances that arose in various colonies did not outgrow the local framework; the contradictions between farmers and large landowners in conditions of an abundance of land were resolved by the fact that farmers left for the West and occupied lands in the order of squatter (unauthorized occupation of vacant land). Sometimes landowners of the colonies or companies of land speculators made claims to these lands, which, with the help of the sheriffs, drove the poor from their plots, ravaged and betrayed their poor huts. Farmers stubbornly resisted, violence responded to violence, and this struggle became a common occurrence in the borderland. Most often these lands were hunting grounds of indigenous inhabitants of the country – the Indians, and with them, the colonists entered into an equally fierce struggle.Question 5During the 18 century, the number of slaves in the southern colonies continued to increase continuously. It exceeded the number of whites in South Carolina and almost equaled it in Virginia. Liverpool merchants made the profit on the slave trade; its participants were English lords and bishops; finally, in this trade, the American planters themselves, who needed a constant influx of labor, were also interested.American plantation slavery was radically different from the slavery of the ancient formation. Marx emphasizes that the planter unites in one person the capitalist and the landowner; in the plantation economy, with the presence of slaves, business is conducted by the capitalists, and production there from the very beginning is designed for the world market. The plantation economy, based on slave labor, was, therefore, an appendage to the capitalist system at an early stage of its development.The position of the white slaves was often no better than that of the blacks. The owner was their temporary owner and therefore absolutely was not interested in preserving their life and health after the expiration of the contract. For their attempt to flee, they were subjected to the fiercest punishment, up to the death penalty.After the expiration of the contract, usually seven years, the obligated servants received clothes, a musket, and some money. In some colonies, there were laws on the allocation of their land. But part of the obligated servants could not stand the unbearable slave labor and croak before they were released.ReferencesNash, C. C. / E. J. L.-W. / G. B. (2006). Struggle for Freedom: A History of African Americans, the, Penguin Academic Series, Concise Edition, Combined Volume. Pearson. https://doi.org/10.5840/renascence20055827

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