Space Exploration, the Atomic Era, and the Cold War

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IntroductionSpace exploration is the study of outer space and celestial bodies with the help of spacecraft. Space exploration is conducted both with the help of manned space flights and with the help of automatic space vehicles. The technical study of space was preceded by the development of astronomy and the creation of large and relative effective missiles at the beginning of the 20th century. During the great space race, the USSR and the USA became the first and main “space powers” capable of launching satellites into orbit with their carrier rockets, and “space superpowers” that launched manned spaceflight. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an agency related to the US federal government and Subordinate directly to the Vice-President of the United States. Responsible for the civilian space program of the country, as well as for scientific research of air and space and scientific and technological research in the field of aviation, aeronautics, and astronautics (in the terminology adopted in the US – astronautics).[1]A powerful catalyst for the development of the space industry was weapon development during the Second World War, which resulted in the emergence of two superpowers: The USSR and the USA. America at the end of the war had a monopoly on nuclear weapons, and demonstrated its capabilities by dropping bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The Soviet Union needed to catch up in the military sector as soon as possible. Therefore, the cold war began within five years they developed the RDS-1, which is the first Soviet atomic bomb. It was a massive bomb, with power of 22 kilotons and weight of 4.6 tons. The USSR created RDS-1 while simultaneously working on the delivery of nuclear missiles. These quick developments by the soviets then caused .(therefore the US and Soviet’s upped their military program).The Apollo program is NASA’s manned space flight program, adopted in 1961 with the aim of carrying out the first manned landing on the Moon and completed in 1975. President John F. Kennedy formulated this task in his speech on September 12, 1961, and it was resolved on July 20, 1969, during the mission of Apollo 11 by the landing of Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin. Also, according to the Apollo program, five astronauts that are more successful landed on the moon, the last in 1972. These six Apollo flights were currently the only ones in the history of humankind when people landed at another astronomical site.[2] (Thesis Statement) The Apollo program and the landing on the Moon are often referred to as the greatest achievements in the history of humankind; however, the movie ‘Apollo 13’ accurately portrays the Apollo 13 crew and their interaction with their families and the specialist in mission control.[3]AnalysisThe first Shuttle that flew near Venus (inoperative) was in May 1961, the Soviet”Venus-1.” The first working station, flying by Venus and studying it, became in December 1962 the American”Mariner-2″. The first fabricated object that reached the surface of Venus was on March 1, 1966, the Soviet station Venera-3. The first Shuttle that made a soft landing on Venus was on December 15, 1970, the Soviet station Venera-7. Data on temperature and pressure were obtained. Only Soviet Venera-9.10 stations in October 1975 (black and white) and Venera-13, 14 in March 1982 (color) could deliver the surface images.The first Soviet attempts to reach Mars (AMS”Mars-1″ in 1962 and”Zond-2″ in 1964) were unsuccessful, and on July 15, 1965, the American” Mariner-4” flew for the first time near Mars and transmitted photographs of the planet. In 1971, the American AMC Mariner 9 and the Soviet AMC Mars-2 and Mars-3 became the first artificial satellites of Mars, and the landing module Mars-3 carried out the world’s first soft landing on Mars on December 3, Due to failure due to an unknown reason, could neither transmit the photos nor test the first mock-dynamic walker rover PROP-M . In July 1976, the American Viking machines were the first to transmit photographs of the surface, as well as to conduct serious scientific research, including tests for the presence of life.The American Mariner 10 flew near Venus on its way to Mercury, which reached March 29, 1974. This was the first and only flight to Mercury in the following more than three decades, resulting in the first photographs of the surface of this planet.Operations in space On December 15, 1965, the American ships”Gemini-6” and” Gemini-7” for the first time conducted joint maneuvering in space, and on March 16, 1966,” Gemini-8” made the first orbital docking. The first automatic docking of unmanned ships was carried out on October 30, 1967, by Soviet unmanned vehicles”Kosmos-186″ and”Kosmos-188″. The first manned orbital station, Salyut-1, was commissioned by the Soviet Union on April 19, 1971.[4]New in technology and education During the space race, aerospace technology and electronics were rapidly developing, but the impact of space technology had an impact on many other fields of science and economics. Concerned by the breakthrough of the Soviet Union, the US government took some serious steps to eliminate the backlog. In particular, in 1958 the Law on Education for the Needs of National Defense was adopted, according to which the financing of education in strategically important fields of science, such as mathematics and physics, was dramatically increased. To date, more than 1200 schools have their planetarium.Subsequent events To some extent, a small space race can be considered the transformation into “space powers” of several other countries that have achieved the possibility of launching satellites by national carrier rockets since the 1960s. Some obvious inertial continuation of the large US-Soviet space race can be considered the creation of manned reusable transport space systems.[5] The first in the US” Space Shuttle” (which was put into regular operation since 1981), the second in the USSR” Energia” -” Buran” (On which only unmanned tests were made: a launch vehicle in 1987 and the entire system in 1988, after which the program was frozen). In the United States, following the ambitious” Constellation program,” rolled up in February 2010. The multipurpose research and development manned spacecraft Orion is being developed, designed to replace the Space Shuttle system for near-Earth flights in 2023 and (in the system with the newly developed super heavy Carrier rocket” SLS”) to provide manned flights to the Moon from 2021-2023, to asteroids from 2026 and to Mars after 2030.[6]The first operated flights and conspiracyThe struggle between the USSR and the United States for the possession of a priority in manned space exploration aroused the suppositions and statements of supporters of conspiracy theories that the nervous situation during the development of American and Soviet programs at the same time could be accompanied by unsuccessful or partially unsuccessful launches in the USSR that were classified. Since the early 1960s, first, on the “lost” West (although there were rumors in the USSR itself), suborbital and orbital Dog again launches began to be suspected, and flights of the so-called.The exploration of the moon is a lunar race On January 20, 1961, in his inaugural address, US President John F. Kennedy sent a signal to the Soviet Union:”Let’s explore the stars together.” Behind this short line was a document that mentioned that a first step, the US, and the USSR could choose to disembark with the scientific goals of a small group (about three people) to the moon, and then return them to Earth.Unmanned vehicles The first Shuttle that flew alongside the Moon was the Soviet automatic interplanetary station”Luna-1” (January 2, 1959), and the first Shuttle to reach the Moon was the Luna-2 station (September 13, 1959).  In the US, the program for exploring the interplanetary space” Pioneer” was launched. However, in the aspect of reaching the Moon, the “Pioneer” was constantly haunted by setbacks, and soon more other more sophisticated programs were created specifically for lunar research – the Ranger, the lunar orbit, and the Surveyor.[7]Manned flights Apollo (program) Nikita Khrushchev received a proposal from President D. Kennedy about a joint landing program for the moon (as well as the launch of more advanced meteorological satellites), but, suspecting an attempt to find out the secrets of Soviet missile and space technologies, refused. To maintain the primacy in space exploration, the Soviet government initially issued permission to Korolev’s design bureau and resources for the continued modification of the Vostok and Voskhod-type ships and only preliminary development of manned lunar projects. Only a few years later, with a long delay in relation to the USA (in 1964), the manned lunar program was approved in the USSR and real large-scale work was carried out on two parallel manned programs: the moon’s flight (Proton – Zond / L1) by 1967 and landing on it (H1 – L3) by 1968.[8]To ensure the priority of the world’s first lunar-flying manned flight in the USSR, the launch of the two-seater ship Zond-7 within the framework of the Proton-Zond program was scheduled for December 8. In view of the fact that the previous unmanned flights of the ships “Zone (7K-L1)” were completely or partially unsuccessful due to the inoperability of the ship and carrier, such a risky flight was canceled – despite the fact that the crews wrote an application to the Politburo of the CPSU Central Committee asking for permission Fly to the Moon immediately, to advance the United States . Even if permission had been received, the USSR would not have won the first (round) stage of the “lunar race” – on January 20, 1969, when an attempt was made to launch the probe Zond-7 in unmanned mode, the Proton rocket exploded (its launch vehicle was Saved by an emergency rescue system ).[9]The first crew of the Apollo 13 crewCommander – 42-year-old James Arthur Lovell, 4th flight.The pilot of the command module is the 38-year-old John Leonard Swigert Jr., the 1st flight. The pilot of the lunar module is the 36-year-old Fred Wallace Haise Jr., the 1st flight. Lovell was an experienced astronaut, at that time he had the Gemini program and the mission of Apollo-8, where he was the pilot of the command module, was the first to fly to the moon repeatedly, as well as the first astronaut to go to his fourth space flight.Swaggart and Hayes were newcomers. Initially, the crew included Thomas Mattingly, but he was replaced by Sweigert for medical reasons – Mattingly, who had no immunity to rubella, on the eve of the flight communicated with her fellow astronaut Charles Duke, who fell ill, which caused reasonable fears, Doctors.[10]Initially, the crew of Lovell was intended for the mission” Apollo-14”, and on “Apollo 13″ it was planned to send the crew under the command of Alan Sheppard. Sheppard suffered from a vestibular apparatus disorder, and, wanting to return to the flights, agreed to a surgical intervention that eliminated the problem; however, his health did not have time to fully recover to the appointed date of flight. As a result, Lovell was offered to exchange ships with Sheppard, to which he agreed. When Mattingly had problems, Lovell was again faced with the choice of either agreeing to replace Mattingly or completely transferring the flight to the second backup crew under the command of John Young. Lovell chose the first with a heavy heart.ConclusionThe conspiracy theory about the” lunar conspiracy of the USA,” which arose in the 1970s and the world’s most widely spread world at the turn of the 20th and 21st centuries, suggests that Apollo’s flights with American astronauts to the moon are just a mockery. Some variants of these theories suggest that the USSR authorities knew about the American deception, but by agreement with the US, they hid it (and even stopped their manned lunar programs) for the sake of achieving economic and political benefits. In some theories of the “moon conspiracy,” it is assumed that the US authorities hide information about the alien presence on the Moon (or, conversely, contribute to the dissemination of misinformation about this presence). There are also theories about the “Soviet lunar conspiracy,” according to which secret (and failed) attempts to fly around the moon and staged a landing on the moon were made in the USSR.ReferencesAdamo, Daniel R. 2008. “Apollo 13 Trajectory Reconstruction via State Transition Matrices.” In Advances in the Astronautical Sciences, 129 PART 2:1279–98. doi:10.2514/1.34977.Curtis, Nancy R. 2011. “Spacesuit: Fashioning Apollo.” Library Journal 136 (3): 128–31.Delano, John W. 2009. “Scientific, Exploration of the Moon.” Elements 5 (1): 11–16. doi:10.2113/gselements.5.1.11.McCurdy, Howard E. 2011. Space and the American Imagination. Johns Hopkins University Press.McDougall, Walter A. 1997. The Heavens and the Earth : A Political History of the Space Age. Johns Hopkins University Press. https://books.google.com.pk/books/about/the_Heavens_and_the_Earth.html?id=qp0sAAAAYAAJ&redir_esc=y.NASA. 2015. “NASA’s Journey to Mars, Pioneering Next Steps in Space Exploration.” NASA’s Journey to Mars, 1–36.Scheuring, R A, J R Davis, J M Duncan, J D Polk, J A Jones, and D B Gillis. 2007. “Recommendations for Exploration Space Medicine from the Apollo Medical Operations Project.” STAR 45 (12).Scheuring, Richard A., Jeffrey A. Jones, Joseph D. Novak, James D. Polk, David B. Gillis, Josef Schmid, James M. Duncan, and Jeffrey R. Davis. 2008. “The Apollo Medical Operations Project: Recommendations to Improve Crew Health and Performance for Future Exploration Missions and Lunar Surface Operations.” Acta Astronautica 63 (7–10): 980–87. doi:10.1016/j.actaastro.2007.12.065.Weck, Olivier L De, W D Nadir, J G Wong, G Bounova, and T M Coffee. 2005. “Modular Structures for Manned Space Exploration : The Truncated Octahedron as a Building Block.” 1st Space Exploration Conference, no. February: 26. doi:10.1107/S0567739482000722.[1] Adamo, Daniel R. 2008. “Apollo 13 Trajectory Reconstruction via State Transition Matrices.” In Advances in the Astronautical Sciences, 129 PART 2:1279–98. doi:10.2514/1.34977.[2] Scheuring, Richard A., Jeffrey A. Jones, Joseph D. Novak, James D. Polk, David B. Gillis, Josef Schmid, James M. Duncan, and Jeffrey R. Davis. 2008. “The Apollo Medical Operations Project: Recommendations to Improve Crew Health and Performance for Future Exploration Missions and Lunar Surface Operations.” Acta Astronautica 63 (7–10): 980–87. doi:10.1016/j.actaastro.2007.12.065.[3] Curtis, Nancy R. 2011. “Spacesuit: Fashioning Apollo.” Library Journal 136 (3): 128–31.[4] Delano, John W. 2009. “Scientific, Exploration of the Moon.” Elements 5 (1): 11–16. doi:10.2113/gselements.5.1.11.[5] Scheuring, Richard A., Jeffrey A. Jones, Joseph D. Novak, James D. Polk, David B. Gillis, Josef Schmid, James M. Duncan, and Jeffrey R. Davis. 2008. “The Apollo Medical Operations Project: Recommendations to Improve Crew Health and Performance for Future Exploration Missions and Lunar Surface Operations.” Acta Astronautica 63 (7–10): 980–87. doi:10.1016/j.actaastro.2007.12.065.[6] McCurdy, Howard E. 2011. Space and the American Imagination. Johns Hopkins University Press.[7] McDougall, Walter A. 1997. The Heavens and the Earth : A Political History of the Space Age. Johns Hopkins University Press. https://books.google.com.pk/books/about/the_Heavens_and_the_Earth.html?id=qp0sAAAAYAAJ&redir_esc=y.[8] Weck, Olivier L De, W D Nadir, J G Wong, G Bounova, and T M Coffee. 2005. “Modular Structures for Manned Space Exploration : The Truncated Octahedron as a Building Block.” 1st Space Exploration Conference, no. February: 26. doi:10.1107/S0567739482000722.[9] NASA. 2015. “NASA’s Journey to Mars, Pioneering Next Steps in Space Exploration.” NASA’s Journey to Mars, 1–36.[10] Scheuring, R A, J R Davis, J M Duncan, J D Polk, J A Jones, and D B Gillis. 2007. “Recommendations for Exploration Space Medicine from the Apollo Medical Operations Project.” STAR 45 (12).

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