Sociological Theories and Concepts Essay

Published: 2021-08-02 09:20:06
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IntroductionThe health care of any country is governed by a set of rules and policies. It defines the process that helps one to understand how the whole process of health care would function. Australia is one of the best health care countries across the globe. But still then nation suffers from many loopholes. In this research, we will discuss how hierarchy and power play a crucial role in the health care sector of Australia. Along with that the various theories and concepts of sociology would be tested to see how they apply to the power factor. All this will help in judging the effect it can have on a medical practitioner or midwifery like me when it comes to taking care of the patient.Hierarchy and powerThe hierarchy in medical terms includes all those people who are involved in the care of a patient. It includes the doctor, medical staff such as the nurses and the midwives. They are all very important for better health of the patient. Hierarchy is a very crucial part of health care as it is questioned on many ethical grounds. Power is the decision to take the final call or the authority one has over the other. It highlights the people or the position that rules other in accepting or following the decision made by them. Many times it is misused in the health care sector as people uses this power for their own selfish motive leading to a lot of issues for the public. It is because of all these reasons that hierarchy and power are such intrinsic issues for the health care system in Australia (van Teijlingen, 2017). There are numerous theories and concepts that highlight how they play a role in the healthcare of Australia.Their effect on the health care system in AustraliaHealth care is of great importance to all the countries. But they should be all the more important to Australia due to its current health care condition. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), a health system is something that involves a bunch of people who provides good and fair health treatment to all the people who may need it. While this may change from nation to nation, certain aspect of it remains the same. The health care of Australia provides immense facilities and care to the majority of its people. Various efforts are made from the Australian government’s side to make the health care as smooth and better as possible. But still there are a lot of times when due to the power that the management or the superior hold or how the accountability functions the basic care and need takes a back seat (Bowling, 2014). This is where the various theories and perspectives come into the picture to explain how the hierarchy and power have the command to make or break the health care system of Australia.Sociological theories and conceptsSociology is that branch of science that deals with the social life of an individual. It takes into consideration the society in which an individual lives, works and grows up. It is the branch that deals with how a human interaction takes place with another aspect of the society. Sociology is very important when it comes to health care. This is because the social factor and determinants play a crucial role and have a major influence on the health care of Australia. This is because they define how the health care and the issues related to it are dealt with the conditions of Australia. There are various concepts and theories known as perspectives. These are based on how sociology functions in a health care environment (Rock, 2016). This will help one to get better understanding of how hierarchy and power have such huge control over the health care system of the nation. The various theories and concepts are:The biomedical model: This is the oldest method or concept that was used in health care. According to this model, the cause of any disease is biological. The whole focus is on the biological and the psychological aspect of the disease. This theory is mostly in practice by the doctors and the other health practitioners of Australia. This concept is important as it helps in clinical practice and research which helps in the health care sector. The reason it is the most effect on the health care system of Australia is because the doctors may lay more emphasis on the way the disease is treated and cured rather than its prevention. This may lead to its successful treatment but one would suffer from that in the future as well. This is the reason that this concept is not so successful at the current time (Rabinowitz & Richlin, 2014). It is because the power should be relied on the ways that can be used in the prevention or the causes of the particular disease.The Functional Approach- According to the functional theory good health is a very important part of a great society. This approach believes that good health care helps in the improvement of the society. This is the reason power and hierarchy plays a huge role in the health care of Australia. The top management of the health system lays too much importance on making the health care better for the life of the country. Various legislations and policies are being introduced to make the life of people better (Duckett & Willcox, 2015). The reason being an ill person may not be able to fulfill all their roles and responsibilities to the best of their abilities.The Australian health care should put their power on how midwifery can be made better and the role that it plays in the life of the citizen. This will make the life of the people of Australia better as the power bestowed upon the midwifery will allow them to apply the applicable policies and rules for the betterment of the health of the people of the country. This will improve not only their health but also the sociological factors that are responsible for the disease. Also in case of hierarchy, if the midwifery is given enough power to take important health related decision than the life of the patient can be much more sorted. The higher authorities may not have sufficient time to take important decision for every health aspect (Wakerman.et.al, 2017). The power with the midwifery can be really helpful for the improvement and advancement in the health care of Australia.The Symbolic Interactionism Theory- According to this theory, every symbol and sign holds different meaning for different human being. It may not have some specific meaning and the human treats it they want to. This can be a huge cause of confusion among the patient and the medical practitioner. A word may have different meaning for the sender and a whole different meaning for the receiver. The role of midwifery is huge in this. This is because they can state the various meanings and conditions associated with the diseases which can help in its qualification. It is because the object gets a meaning only when a human interacts with it (Ritzer & Stepnisky, 2017). The power that it holds can be defining force of the health care in Australia. The hierarchy or the power will flow accordingly to treat or cure that disease.The various meanings and attributes related to various things may lead to many diseases. It is with the help of the power that one can define what accordingly is true to the term disease and illness and what just a belief of the public is. It is based on this hierarchy that a sick person can be treated and turned into a normal person. It all depends on how the sick people tend to behave with the medical person treating them like the nurses or the midwives.The Feminist Theory– This theory states that all the major researches and the findings state the facts about male humans and the diseases suffered by them. There is no record of any female interaction in all this. Female health is of great concern in Australia. The facilities provided are still better than other nations but there is scope for improvement. The power in the top people lays more emphasis on the better health of the male or the upper caste of the societies ignoring the health of some of the sections of the country. Same can be seen with the hierarchy followed in the nation (Clifford.et.al, 2015). This has caused disparities in the health sector of the country. The power is mostly center on the rich people of the country leaving the poor female in a very distasteful condition.With the help of medical practitioner like the nurses and the midwifery the situation can improve. They are of the same gender and understand the situation in a far better way. They can be consulted on ways to improve the health of the female taking into consideration just their health and no other aspect (Renedo.et.al, 2015). Improvement in their social condition with the help of power can also be really great for prevention of further illness and health issues.The Conflict Theory– This theory highlights the inequality that exists in the gender, social status and other areas of the health care of Australia. The level of healthcare differs majorly from the top to bottom in every part of the world. Though the situation is not so bad in Australia but still the gap is quite broad. The hierarchy and the power enjoyed by few people in the nation is often misused by them. This can lead to a lot of loss of life and resources which could have been easily prevented. It also comments on how various diseases which are social to the life of people are considered as medical and treated without proper guidance. This makes people suffer from than they should (Giddens.et.al, 2016). This is the reason that power plays such a huge role in the health care system in Australia.The government needs to appoint people who are experts in this field at various levels. This will allow the sick person to get the fair treatment irrespective of the social status shared by him. Also the midwifery and the medical practitioner should not discriminate between the patients on the basis of their power or the links that they enjoy. Every patient should be treated as fairly and equal as possible.Another theory or concept is the social concept. It takes into account the biological, psychological and the social aspect that can affect a person’s health. They believe that people with higher status and power also suffer from disease but they get the facility of better treatment and health facilities which is lacking in the lower section of the Australian society.Effect on me as a health practitionerAs a medical practitioner or midwifery all the power and hierarchy affect me and my work to a great extent. As a medical practitioner works with many people, my work is often dictated by my seniors and boss. Many times I may not treat a patient that is in need because the health authority above me does not allow me to do so. Due to the power enjoyed by few people of the society forces me to treat their disease even if it is not so serious. This makes the life of a normal sick patient very pathetic. They even being in need may not get the treatment that they deserve. It also makes me feel very sick and helpless at times (Madsen, 2015). Though there are various policies and rules that govern the life of the people but even they may not apply to various situations.There is also a war on the power dynamics in all this. The private sector is owned by the government and enjoys more power as compared to the private sector where all the health professionals like us work. This rivalry of power and hierarchy may also cause some difference in the health care system of Australia. It gives us less power than we deserve for taking adequate care of the patient. The top official may not have enough power in us to give us the autonomy that we deserve when it comes to caring for a patient (Irving.et.al, 2014). This leads to a lot of delayed decision and unnecessary work which could have been easily avoided.There are various boundaries that govern the health sector affecting the lives of people of Australia. Thus, efforts need to be made to fill the gap and make the life of the people as better as possible. Proper hierarchy should be set based on the need and the social condition of a person rather than the money or power enjoyed by them. More provisions and policies should be established that can contribute in making the lives of patient of Australia improved in every way.ConclusionIt can be clearly stated that power and hierarchy are an intrinsic part of the health care system of Australia. The dominance they have along with the impact that they can create is the reason they should be used very carefully. Making efforts on using them to improve the social as well the living condition of the people better to prevent many disease can be a huge step in this direction. Empowering medical practitioner with sufficient power and accountability can help in taking quick and better decision improving the overall health care of Australia making it a much better nation.ReferencesBowling, A. (2014). Research methods in health: investigating health and health services. McGraw-Hill Education (UK).Clifford, A., McCalman, J., Bainbridge, R., & Tsey, K. (2015). Interventions to improve cultural competency in health care for Indigenous peoples of Australia, New Zealand, Canada and the USA: a systematic review. International Journal for Quality in Health Care, 27(2), 89-98.Duckett, S., & Willcox, S. (2015). The Australian health care system (No. Ed. 5). Oxford University Press.Giddens, A., Duneier, M., Appelbaum, R. P., & Carr, D. S. (2016). Introduction to sociology. WW Norton.Irving, J. A., Park-Saltzman, J., Fitzpatrick, M., Dobkin, P. L., Chen, A., & Hutchinson, T. (2014). Experiences of health care professionals enrolled in mindfulness-based medical practice: a grounded theory model. Mindfulness, 5(1), 60-71.Madsen, R. (2015). Applying work–family conflict theory. Routledge Handbook of Theory in Sport Management, 17(28), 40.Rabinowitz, N. S., & Richlin, A. (2014). Feminist theory and the classics.Renedo, A., Marston, C. A., Spyridonidis, D., & Barlow, J. (2015). Patient and Public Involvement in Healthcare Quality Improvement: How organizations can help patients and professionals to collaborate. Public Management Review, 17(1), 17-34.Ritzer, G., & Stepnisky, J. (2017). Modern sociological theory. SAGE Publications.Rock, P. (2016). Making of symbolic interactionism. Springer.van Teijlingen, E. R. (2017). The medical and social model of childbirth.Wakerman, J., Humphreys, J., Wells, R., Kuipers, P., Entwistle, P., & Jones, J. (2017). A systematic review of primary health care delivery models in rural and remote Australia 1993-2006.

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