Human Growth Hormone

Published: 2021-07-13 17:05:05
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The study aims to discuss the structural and biological detail of the human growth hormone. The human growth hormones being to the class of biosynthetic hormones that work inside the body and people use it for various biological functions such as getting muscular strength, body toning, weight loss and anti-ageing. The physiological effects on the body, benefits of the hormones and its cons will also be discussed in the paper. Moreover, the use of GH in sort by athletes and the purpose of sports doping is also discussed for an explanation of growth hormone function inside the body form perspective of abuse.The growth hormone is a class of polypeptide chain made `up of 191 amino acids. The hormone is responsible for the growth, regeneration of cells and reproduction s well. The weight of the growth hormone is 20,500 kDa.The evolutionary perspective of the growth or somatotropin hormone dated 10 million years ago in a form of a cluster of genes, the study revealed that the human growth hormone is present on the same locus where there are four HCS A and B genes present for the synthesis of chorionic somatotropin hormone. The location of the human growth hormone is on the long arm of the chromosome 17. The loves of the chromosome 17 inhabiting somatotropin hormone are 122-24. [1]The role of the human growth hormone is that it increases the amount of glucose and fatty acids and is also stimulates the synthesis of somatomedin IGF-I. The role of the hormone happens through an expression. The human growth hormone spliced up to Messenger RNA that leads to the formation of 20kDa variant. The human hormone released through anterior part of the pituitary gland. The variant then performs the oxidation in the adipose tissue of the body. This is a post-translational modification through which gene expresses and the growth hormone performs its function. [2]The structure of the human growth hormone through the investigation by X-ray crystallography revealed that a single growth hormone binds to the two conjugate receptors banded with membranes. The joining of the membrane-bound receptors happen in a way that site 1 of the receptor binds to helix 4 of the hormone and site 2 binds to the 1 and 3 helices of the hormone. This binding of the hormone is necessary for the performance and activity of the hormone biologically. The binding follows the dimerization process which releases the formation of tyrosine kinase Jak-2 enzyme that adds the phosphate group to the receptor site through phosphorylation. [2]The secretion of growth hormone is managed through the regulation by different forms of factors such as somatostatin, GHRH, ghrelin and IGF-1. The regulation role by the factor GHRH lies in the proliferation of the somatotrophic hormone. [3] The level of the secretion of the growth hormone varies in pulses and frequency with age and biological system. The children will have low amplitude and frequency of the growth hormone and with the arrival of the puberty, the physiology becomes complex and so does the amplitude and frequency of the hormone as well. There is a shift happens with the gradual decline at the mid-age of the humans which happens due to the reduction in the insulin growth factor1. [2]There are two ways through which Growth hormone affects the body. One is a direct way and the other is indirect. The direct effect happens when growth hormone affects the desired area such as fat cells and break down triglycerides present in fat cells. The targeting of fat cells also inhibit the fat cells to cut down the accumulation of fat cells. The second way is the indirect effect that involves the contribution of insulin growth factor {IGF-1). The secretion of IGF-1 happens through the liver. The IGF-1 affects the desired area. [4]The human growth hormone is used for controlling the body fat and regulation of metabolism. It also used to treat growth deficiency in children. The children who have syndromes such as Turner ’s syndrome, kidney disease mostly result in short stature body. This is treated with growth hormone. In adults, the GH is responsible for cutting down the fat. The adults usually want to cut down fat and increase muscles. The GH is used illegally sometimes in order to build strength and to boost endurance along with muscle strength. [5]Although there is a ban on the use of GH for muscle building by international Olympic committee. It has been in illegal use by the sportsman for building endurance for exercising. A study conducted on the impact of GH tested for endurance and performance among 44 athletes in California. The persons under study were of 27 age, body mass index of 24 and all males. 337 athletes were given injections of growth hormone and the rest of 137 got placebos. The result showed that persons with GH injections got 4.6 ponds gain in body mass but did not end up in improved strength for exercise sessions. [5]Somatotropin mediates the production of protein content in the young children. Utilizes fat through the insulin changes and control the insulin growth factor also. According to one study. The use of the GH increases the effects of fluid retention in the body of the user, muscular and joint pain and hand numbness. [6]The HGH helps in maintaining the body shape and raising the height of short heightened children to normal levelled who are short-height can increase their height with the administration of human growth hormone therapy over in 3 years. Most of the people use hormonal therapy to get a quality life and feel good about themselves. The use of hormonal injection should be administrated carefully as too much concentration can affect the body such as joint pain, swelling, headaches and muscular weakness.The postoperative condition of human body mediates the breakdown of protein inside the body due to excess release of calcium, phosphorus, and nitrogen. This condition leads to systemic injury after post operation. The administration of human growth hormone proved helpful in the accumulation of protein after the surgery. According to a study, the use of biosynthetic human hormone proved beneficial to combat the breakdown of protein through the anabolism effect of human growth hormone. The post-operative condition comes with fewer nutrients uptake and nitrogen imbalance, it is managed by the BSHGH that results in increased blood glucose and increased fat oxidation in gastrointestinal operative patients. [7]The administration of growth hormone in adult patients with growth hormone deficiency is one way to treat the patients with beneficial effects on the deficiency. Bengt son, et al (1993) examined the adults with the hormonal deficiency. He used HGH replacement therapy for the desired effect on body composition and metabolism. 0.2-0.5 U/Kg was given to the patients with onset deficiency for 3 weeks. Body composition analysis is done through impendence, computational and potassium concentration methods. The psychiatric effects were also determined under the study. The findings of the analysis suggested that HGH recombinant therapy is helpful in increasing muscular volume, and reduced fat composition. The bone and mineral composition have also showed desired change. Moreover, the HGH also reduces the psychiatric symptoms as well as adults. [8]The level of lipids molecules in adipose tissue of the body of the elders is regulated by Human growth hormone metabolism. The HGH first do the lipogenesis by breaking down lipid content through decreasing enzymatic activity. The effect of HGH checked in another came through the chorionic administration of the hormone. It induced the inhibition of glyceride production and reduced fat composition. Furthermore, the fatty acid oxidation the happens through the administration fo HGH accompanies with the decreased level of respiratory quotient and rise in ketogenesis process.The human growth hormone also helps in protein metabolism. The HGH helps in the transference of amino acids from extracellular region to the intracellular region of the cell by the C-alpha amino so butyric acid. The HGH along with the increased level of C-AIB also mediates the uptake of various amino acids such as alanine. Threonine, serine, glycine, tryptophan, arginine, asparagine. It also helps the adherence of H=leucine amino acid into the protein itself. [2]The HGH once enter into bloodstream remains n inactive form for few minutes and then liver concerts in into usable growth factors responsible for the biological functions of the hormone. There are several benefits of human growth hormone. The first benefit is increased or improved muscular strength in adults. The humans take them to increase their strength capacity and HGH promotes it through the synthesis of collagen in tendons and muscles that leads to improved exercise potential swell. To test the effect, a study was conducted by the international journal of endocrine who performed the HGH therapy on seven samples. The subjects were tested for hormone responsiveness and results disclosed that HGH is helpful in good muscular strength Ina abdominal portion of the body and noticeable thermoregulation also occurred in response to the hormone. [9]The second benefit is regulation of bone and mineral metabolism leading to healing of fractures. The IGF1 factor is the key behind to degeneration of bone structure that mediates the growth. According to journal BONE, the investigation on the effect of HGH on the bone was done systematically through the subcutaneous injections of the hormone. The result turned out positive for the healing of fracture with the applied injection therapy.The third benefit of human growth hormone is in Weight loss regime. The key to the weight loss by the hormone is the breakdown of lipid material in the fat tissues of the body. The hormone performs the breakdown of triglyceride content into glycerol content by the method of hydrolysis and free fatty acids. These free fatty acid are suppressed for their lipid effect by the effect of HGH. A research conducted on obese patients for the activity in a study published in hormone research family. The patients were prescribed strict calorie diet along with the administration of HGH. The results confirmed the weight loss in patients running n strict diet and hormonal administration method.The HGH fourth benefit is reduced heart disease risk. There is a study conducted on 24 patients with deficiency of HGH in Sweden. The HGH reduced the fat composition in patients and thus cutting down the risk for cardiovascular disease onset.The HGH has also confirmed its effectiveness in the improvement of erectile dysfunction in men. The humans who have the deficiency of HGH are prone to impair sexual desire and erectile dysfunction. The HGH is the one hormone that helps in the maturation of sexual cycle and improved desirability for sex.To check the efficacy of the hormone, 35 healthy men and 45 erectile dysfunction men participated in research both sets of men were exposed to visual stimuli to check penile erection. The result of the study showed that the patients with injections of the HGH had more erection around 90 percent increase than the persons with no HGH.The last and long effect of the HGH is the initiation of quality life. People use it for the normal and quality psychological balanced life. The examination of the effect was tested through the analysis of cognitive functions in Lithuanian study. The growth hormone of 12 IU per week was given to the patients with deficiency of hormone and examined for six months’ time period. The result displayed improved cognitive function with good mood [9]There is another side to the use of human growth hormone which is obviously the downside. The use of HGH for long tie can impact the body negatively. The cons that come with it are high blood pressure problem, liver, hear and spleen enlargement, carpel tunnel syndrome, sleep disturbances, swelling of tissues, high risk of polyps formation in a colon. One of the main danger is that it reduces the lifespan of the individual by 10 years. [10]The HGH is reported as the abusive drug among the adolescents. The young people using this as anabolic steroids to get the desired body. The study conducted for the purpose of the HGH abuse in 224 males and 208 females. The purpose of the abuse was analyzed through questionnaire and result showed that young adolescent was 30 percent who knows that someone is using the HGH for getting muscular strength and for enhanced stamina. The abusers were of age 14-15. They were using it because they just wanted to get the desired effects without being aware of the side effects that come along with the use of the HGH.[11]The human growth hormone has been banned and labelled an illegal substance 1990.The growth hormone is helpful in sportspersons because of the anabolic function of the hormone and the metabolic properties of it on fat and carbohydrates,The growth hormone injection into the bloodstream increases by 10 times for the desired intensity of work. When a person intends to do in workout activity, the deposition of lactate in the muscles get to the 70 percent for 10-15misn. The HGH will increase it by 5-10 times leading to maximum intensity workout span for the sportsman.The other thing that human growth hormone do is the release of it into the bloodstream which leads to the increasing amplitude of the pulses of the individuals.The preference of the drug by the sportsman is due to its effectiveness’s on getting desired endurance and muscular strength. The sportsmen take around 10-25IU/day for 3-4 times a week. The sportsperson uses it with other doping chemicals called as steroids or EPO. They do it because they want lean body composition. [12]Sports doping has been the most controversial issue worldwide. Many athletes from baseball, football and cycling confirmed the use of illegal growth hormones.One study recognized the Huma growth hormone for its effectiveness on the muscles and labelled as “wonder substance” because it stimulates the anabolism in muscles and ripped the muscles resulting in improved stamina in sportsperson. The study conducted on the hormones effect on exercise, strength and metabolism in 440 individuals.The physiological effect of the human growth hormone on strength showed that it did not improve bicep or quadriceps strengths in individuals. The analysis of basal metabolism showed increased heart metabolism to rest. It was 3.8 beats /min in persons with HGH injections. Similarly, the exercise ability was high in patients with HGH because of the increased fatty acid oxidation activity and increased metabolism. The free fatty acid and glycerol content was also high in patients and thus, triggered the respiratory quotient.[13]HGH increased the athletic performance. According to the published article ESPN, research was done by giving injections of hormones to 103 male athletes and 40 females’ recreational athletes for a time period of 2 months. The scientific evidence that came out of the result accepted that Human growth hormone increased the sprinting capacity by 4 percent with HGH in females and 8 percent in male athletes. The researchers also observed that there has been a boost in galloping and with HGH, one can reduce half of a second in the 10-second sprint.The sportspersons use the hormone for getting improvement in sprint activities in the sports like swimming and running. This kind of activities requires a lot of energy and reducing the sprint second can make anyone a winner on the go.[14]The paper conversed detail about the human growth hormone structure, physiological route, regulation and the effects on the body. Human growth hormone benefits in therapeutic ways such s for a reduction in heart disease risk, for recovering from post-operative injury, for bone regeneration and for weight loss. But things go wrong when someone buses the hormone and take it for improving the muscular strength, for reversing age process, and for various multiple purposes to get the biological system run before natural time. It has been labelled as illicit by all countries but still, it is being used as an off-label drug by sportsmen and fitness freaks. There should be proper awareness regarding the medication or chemical that you put into the body system. Growth hormones might work effectively and give you good result in quick time but the side effects cannot be reversed and they pose harm to your life. One should find another natural way to boost up metabolism and for improving performance rather than using hormones.Referencesal, Hau Liu et. “Systematic Review: The effects of Growth Hormones on Athletic Performance.” (2008). https://staging4.ctrl.ucla.edu:7624/education/files/publicview/training/docs/CarmichaelJC.pdf.al, Vaughn I. Rickert et. “Human Growth Hormone: A New Substance Of Abuse Among Adolescents?” Clinical Pediatrics (2016). http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.1016.800&rep=rep1&type=pdf.Associated Press: ESPN. Study: HGH boosts athletic performance. n.d. http://www.espn.in/olympics/skiing/story/_/id/22832054/mikaela-shiffrin-738000-tops-skiing-world-cup-prize-money-list.Dr.Axe. 9 Benefits of Human Growth Hormone, Including More Muscle & Less Fat. n.d. https://draxe.com/human-growth-hormone/.Ellson Y.Chen., Yu-ChengLiao.., Douglas H.Smith., Hugo A.Barrera-Saldaña., Richard E.Gelinas & Peter H.Seeburgab. “The human growth hormone locus: Nucleotide sequence, biology, and evolution.” Genomics (1989): 479-497. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0888754389902711.George H.Gass & Harold, M.Kaplan. Handbook of Endocrinology. New York: CRC Press, 1982. https://books.google.com.pk/books?id=90r9zRUYEx0C&pg=PA173&dq=human+growth+hormone+structure+and+biology&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjZmY-BzfvZAhUtsaQKHacaBl4Q6AEIUDAI#v=onepage&q=human%20growth%20hormone%20structure%20and%20biology&f=false.Gunawardane, Kavinga. Normal Physiology of Growth Hormone in Adults. 2000.H. C. WARD, D. HALLIDAY & A. J. W. SIM. “Protein and Energy Metabolism with Biosynthetic Human Growth Hormone after Gastrointestinal Surgery.” BIOSYNTHETIC HUMAN GROWTH HORMONE AND PROTEIN AND ENERGY METABOLISM (1987): 56-61. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1492918/pdf/annsurg00197-0066.pdf.Harvard Men’s Health Watch. Growth hormone, athletic performance, and ageing. May 2010. https://www.health.harvard.edu/diseases-and-conditions/growth-hormone-athletic-performance-and-aging. May 2010.Isaksson, B A Bengtsson S Edén L Lönn H Kvist A Stokland G Lindstedt I Bosaeus J Tölli L Sjöström O G. “Treatment of adults with growth hormone (GH) deficiency with recombinant human GH.” The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism (1993): 309-317. https://academic.oup.com/jcem/article-abstract/76/2/309/2651237.M Saugy, N Robinson, C Saudan, N Baume, L Avois, & P Mangin. “Human growth hormone doping in sport.” Br J Sports Med (2006): 135-139. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2657499/.Sonksen, Linn Goldberg Alan D. Rogol Peter H. “Growth Hormone: Use and Abuse .” The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism (2009): E2. https://academic.oup.com/jcem/article/94/6/E2/2596361.UW Health. hGH: More Dangerous Health Gamble Than Fountain of Youth. 1 August 2008. https://www.uwhealth.org/news/hgh-more-dangerous-health-gamble-than-fountain-of-youth/11939. 1 August 2008.Vivo Pathophysiology. Growth Hormone (Somatotropin). n.d. http://www.vivo.colostate.edu/hbooks/pathphys/endocrine/hypopit/gh.html.

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