Answer:In the early 19th century, due to the occurrence of market revolution, peace and welfare increased in the American societies. The important reason was the revolution of the economy that boosted up the American economic system. Due to the economic boost, the transportation system changed and enhanced the movement of goods, commodities, information, knowledge, and people throughout the country. The market revolution also revolutionized the industries and increased the employment rate. Moreover, the new jobs creation helped the women sector to find jobs and make them able to be independent. The banking sector was also changed and new trends of tariffs, banking pattern, and legal themes increased the economic growth.It was not an industrial revolution overall, but an economic boost that changed the economic system of the country. It includes the traditional sources of the country such as water, wood, and human labor. The economic system changed its pattern to increase the economic activities and to spread the distribution of goods. The new consumption pattern and economic growth rate changed the economic behavior of country as well as its expectations and attitudes.The transportation system was slow in the country but due to the economic boost, it developed and improved. The network of roads, steamboats, canals, and railroads improved in a dramatic way. Due to the improved transportation system, the movement of goods and commodities became easier and towards wider markets. The public transport system of the country was expensive, so the private companies started to spread their business and created a monopoly in the markets. Railroads created and developed in many states that do not only unify the country culturally but also economically.The transportation improvement changed the pattern of growth and advanced manufacturing system of the industries. The markets expanded and created opportunities for the people. The leading industries were the shoes and textile production and in these industries, the pattern of production changed by improving the system and making it more better. In first American textile factory was created in 1790, and later on in 1800 almost 170 industries created in the country. These factories created opportunities for young women and allowed them to work independently in the factories. As mill workers, the wages for them were appropriate but the working hours were long. The young women not only started to work independently but also they started saving their income in the banks that boosted up the banking system. It promoted the economic growth as well as personal freedom of men and women in the country. The banking system started to rise and exercised power over the economy. These all opportunities and economic boost also created several problems for the economy as well. The major threat was the financial collapse that led towards the panic in the early 19th century.Question 6:Politics in the Age of Jackson: How did American politics change in the 1820s, and 1830s? Why was Jackson such as prominent figure? Explain a few of the political issues of that era. How are the political events of that era similar to modern times?Answer:In the era of market revolution, the spread of democracy throughout the country also increased. The political system of the country changed in the 1820 and several political events occurred till 1830. The economic boost and changing pattern of American political system advanced the people and generated thousands of new voters. Also, the most important figure of the American system was Andrew Jackson, President of the United States during (1829-1837). He had a charismatic personality and he always expressed his positive feelings and devotions towards the country. He dominated the Congress and became the reason of increased rate of voters throughout the country.The political campaign in 1828 was the result of the first national election in which the dominant issues raised based on scandal and character questions. The opponents of Jackson started to raise questions about his character and targeted his fatherless childhood considering him a bastard son of a prostitute. Moreover, the marriage story of Jackson with Rachael Donelson also targeted by the opponents with the factors that he was a seducer. But all these allegations ended when he became the American President as he was considered as the most popular political figure in front of the general public. In the inauguration ceremony of President, in 1829, Jackson only spoke for 10 minutes but won the hearts of millions of people. Although the people who gathered in the White House inauguration ceremony, broke down the china glasses and furniture over the excitement to view the great man. Throughout his presidential career, Jackson always provides hospitality to the public and proved himself a common man.Jackson promoted the federal government and became a democratic politician. He was the opponent of federal support to the transportation system and the grants of monopolies. He wanted a system in which the land sales spread in the country and economic democracy will increase in the country. He developed a federal policy to remove the Indians, from the area and in that scenario he was free to use his veto power. He wanted to transfer the Indians to the west of Mississippi as that was the only way to save the minorities. The Indian Removal Act of 1830 was passed and the eastern tribes of the country were settled to relocate to the west of Mississippi. The southern tribes started to resist against the relocation and adopted the written laws of 1827 that was the constitution modeled in the US constitution. The problems with different tribes in the country still exist as the United States is still facing different issues regarding the presence of minorities in the country.Question 4:Early Republic: Examine the key leaders in chapter 9 and 10. How did they address the challenges facing the country? What do you find that is similar, or different, in their plans for new nation?Answer:Alexander Hamilton is considered as the most famous figure of 1790 who unified the pro-constitution federalists of 1788. In his early life, he wrote many political articles that made him famous and hired by the General George Washington. In his viewpoint, the government system should always be very strong to make a strong economy. He creates a proposal to fund the debt of country and made easier to pump the million dollars to the US economy. His also created a banking system plan to manage and balance between the money and supply. He designated a complete pattern of tariff policies that helped the production rate of the country to increase the manufacturing interests.George Washington was also a popular figure as the public were considered him a trusted politician. He became the US President in 1789 and became popular due to his public-spirited leadership abilities. He was the one who always considered that his right step will benefit the country and the wrong one could become a disadvantage to the government system. He always prefers the public interest over the private interest and represented honesty during his Presidency for the US societies. He promoted the pattern to hire new people on the important positions, such as Department of War, Treasury, and State. He hired talented as well as experienced people in the government system.Tecumseh was also a famous leader mostly popular in the Indian minorities. He was not only a leader but also a politician and warrior. He was the one who fought at the battle of fallen timbers, which was a huge defeat of Indians. According to Hamilton, he was one among the genius people who could easily bring revolution in the countries with fearless nature and fighting commitment.All these leaders were the one who fought for the similar cause to develop and to improve their country. These all leaders have strong characters and determination towards their goals that make them able to devote their efforts to the country.Question no 1: Explain how the political consciousness of Americans changed in the two decades leading up to Independence. Answer:The political consciousness of Americans that changed during the time span of two decades from 1754-1775 happened because of a series of revolutionary, unexpected, undetermined and history-making changes. These changes included wars, acts, revolutionary movements and insurrections. The story of change and initiation of Revolution started from the Seven Years’ War from the year of 1754 to 1762. This war is also known as ‘French and Indian War’ in America and ended by the North American domination of British party on the other side of the war.This war is not the only pillar of change in the history of American Revolution as it is followed by the ‘Sugar and Stamp Acts’ that continued to occur from the year of 1763 to 1765 (right after the French and Indian War). The Sugar and Stamp Acts played an important role on their side followed by the effects of ‘The Townshend Acts and Economic Retaliation’ that continued from the time of the year 1767 to 1770. However, between the two years of apparent historical pause between the highlighted events did not exactly remained eventless. Furthermore, ‘The Destruction of the Tea and the Coercive Acts’ from 1770 to 1774 influenced the American population to a significant and great extent. Given the fact that these acts and matter of changes continue over the time span of four years clearly explains that how influential they would be.Last but not the least, the series of changes leading to the political consciousness of Americans and ultimately leading up to the American Revolution and Independence included the events of ‘Domestic Insurrections’ from 1774 to 1775. From the year of 1754 to the time in 1775, there is a long event spread on the road leading towards the American Revolution. It also explains and proves the facts the history-altering events like revolution and independence does not happen in one day or two but takes place after a long series of constant changes.Thomas Hutchinson who became the royal governor of Massachusetts colony in 1771 can be considered as a significant role who tried a lot to conserve the former situation and prevent Revolution. However, despite his multiple attempts to prevent Revolution and American Independence as well as ‘Albany plan of Union (between Colonists and British), changes did occur. At the end of Seven years war British took the control and domination of North America. It all did not start at once but lead down to war on multiple issues like French-British Rivalry in the Ohio Country. The underlying reason for this rivalry was the reclamation of land in Ohio by the British that was under the domination of French parties. From this rivalry to all the changes and consequences happened until 1775, the ultimate effect or change turned out to be the altered or modified political consciousness of Americans bringing the American Revolution.Question no 2: Britain V. America. How did the colonists manage to gain independence, fighting against the powerful British Empire?Answer: When we consider the powerful British army, the increased confidence of British controls over their strength and win for war for the sake of America, it seems hard to believe the loss of British from Colonists. However, there happen to be few reasons, very potent and significant ones, behind this loss. Though British army and domination had the firm believes that they could not lose from Colonists but there were certain shortcomings that let them down. One of the reasons included the fact that British army did not have constant back up of energy and food supplies. Without it, it was pointless to move forward to the southern area for further domination.During the war for America, the nation was overall divided into two categories being the colonists and the loyalists by the British. Loyalists were the one-fifth of that population that was in favor of Britain powers and two-fifths of those who were completely neutral. However, rest of the two-fifths consisted of Colonists taking the seat on the other side of the rivalry. Loyalists were claimed as traitors by the Americans and people fighting the battle on the home front had to face terrible difficulties because of their choices, this differentiation and that claim of being the traitor.In addition to the uncertainty of supplies, the second major reason behind the loss of British from Colonists for America was their continuous misuse and non-compliance with the power and support of loyalists. It was an obvious fact that British army needed the support of loyalists on a continuous basis for the defeat of colonists but every time they left loyalists at the mercy of ruthless and brutal enemies. This not only decreased the positive and plus point of the British side of the war. Moreover, there came a point when it seemed best for the British not to move forward but to preserve what they had earned.It means that British wanted to continue moving forward to claim and dominate the south side of America but it would leave less amount of British army controlling increased area of land that seemed impossible to hold. Despite that, British domination decided to move forward by making a flawed plan containing multiple catches that ultimately went unsuccessful. The next significant reason for the win of Colonists was the French alliance near the end of the war period. It could never have been possible for the colonists to win America from British without the help of France.However, it must be noted and understood that the war for America was not only for getting freedom from British powers. It was also much more including the Americans to think about and understand the importance of legitimacy of authority as well as the significance of politics. This war disrupted the lives of all Americans to great extent and revolution did come at a price as always.