Chapter 8Task of teachingScholars define the term as the actions performed with the intention to induce learning. An individual with advanced knowledge about a concept furthers the education of another individual with less knowledge about the same concept. For example, the curriculum states that teachers should engage with the students to induce knowledge to them (Wiles 34).Frame factorsFrame factors are the determinants outside the teaching process that are considered during the development of the curriculum. They could be the resources available to conduct learning or constraints such as the community, demographics, and time and program goals.Proximal framesProximal frames are conditions that directly affect the learning process. These determinants are crucial to the process of learning. An example of proximal frames is the student’s attitude.Distal/ higher-order frameA higher-order frame is an indirect factor that affects the operations of the education sector. For example, the political conditions in a region.Theodore Sizer/ Coalition of Essential SchoolsThe Coalition of Essential Schools is a US organization founded by Ted Sizer with the aim of advancing a type of whole school reform. Ted Sizer aimed to bring together examples of radical schools restructuring that was the focus of Horace’s compromise.Chapter 9Research, development and diffusion(RD $amp; D)This is a linear and systematic model for disseminating innovation from the center to the periphery (Wiles 129). It creates awareness about programs and courses and then disseminates the innovation program so that innovation can be replicated and used in other areasResearchResearch refers to all the activities undertaken by the teaching staff to come up with new innovative ideas and teaching services to the students. For example, the use of modern advanced technology.DevelopmentUnder RD $D, development is the progressive achievement in advancing the tutor’s and student’s level of knowledge due to the innovation (Shawer 181). For example, the use of modern teaching facilities in practical lessons.DiffusionIn education, diffusion is the term used to define how teachers implement and sustain teaching innovation introduced through staff development programs. Diffusion means the compatibility of the teacher to innovations.AdoptionAdoption is the implementation of innovations regarding the needs and concerns of the students. Adoption requires the teacher to adjust according to create reality among the students. Examples of adoption approaches in the curriculum include the fidelity perspective and mutual adoption perspective (Shawer 177).Robert Glaser/individually prescribed instruction (IPI)This is a teaching approach used by tutors to diagnose the difficulties faced by students in their studies. This strategy enables the tutor to match the student’s abilities to alternate ways of learning and provide remedial assistance. This approach is employed mostly in challenging units such as mathematics.Collaborative approachesThe collaborative approach is a general term that defines the efforts by students and teachers to work in unity. The students create groups of two or more to search for conduct experiments, search for understanding or create a product for learning purposes (Wiles 232).Whole languageA whole language is an approach used in learning especially when teaching young children how to read. It encourages a lot of reading to the child. However, it also urges that the tutor should allow the children to read by sight rather than by sounds only (Shawer 174). For instance, the rule breaker words have to be learned through view since they do not follow the phonics rules.Chapter 10 and 11Purpose of evaluationAssessments are administered to provide statistics on the value added to the student’s level of knowledge. The results of the assessment enable teachers to identify the areas to modify and improve on their students. The evaluation also facilitates the understanding of different concepts as they revise for the tests. For example, practical evaluation helps test the effectiveness of the theory taught (Shawer 183).Standardized testsThese are assessments administered for comparison purposes the performance of various students. The questions administered, conditions for administering and the scoring procedures are constant for all the students. Any exam that assessment that is administered in the same manner to all test takers is a standardized test. For example, the indexing exams (Slattery 390).Formative evaluationFormative evaluations are the tests administered during the teaching process of a course or program. Formative assessments help students identify their strengths and weaknesses and the areas they need to work. This kind of evaluations works as revision for the integrated assessment. The continuous assessment tests are a perfect example of formative assessment.Summative evaluationSummative evaluation mainly focuses on assessing the development of the students in a particular span of time. They are based on making judgments involving the efficacy of a program or course to the knowledge of the student. Some examples of summative assessments are the benchmark or interim assessments (Slattery 395).Side effectsSide effects exist in education the same way they exist in medicine. In education concepts such as time wastage and wrong approaches when dealing with different students results in side effects. For instance, Poor teaching practices may make students hate the concept of learning for the rest of their lives.TransactionsFrom a transaction perspective, teaching process involves the creation of situations that arouse the imagination of students in a way that they can interact with the material being learned to construct knowledge (Slattery 420). In practice, this involves teaching using case studies and examples.Measurement-based evaluationMeasurement-based evaluation is the assessments conducted with the aim of determining the level of knowledge induced in a student. For example, student’s self-reports provide descriptive data about the student while assessments provide measurement-based data.Integrated evaluationIntegrated evaluation is a type of assessment that takes an interdisciplinary approach that combines some concepts and requires the individual being examined to have diverse knowledge since it covers an entire course or topic. For example, the exams administered at the end of the semester or an academic year academic (Slattery 431).Works citedWiles, Jon W., and Joseph C. Bondi. Curriculum development: A guide to practice. Prentice Hall, 2010.Slattery, Patrick. Curriculum development in the postmodern era: Teaching and learning in an age of accountability. Routledge, 2012.Shawer, Saad F. “Classroom-level curriculum development: EFL teachers as curriculum-developers, curriculum-makers and curriculum-transmitters.” Teaching and teacher education26.2 (2010): 173-184.