Brain and Criminal Behavior

Published: 2021-07-19 13:10:06
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Introduction The emerging field of neuro-criminology helps the scientist in identify the patterns and evaluate the activities of brain in order to identify the criminal behaviors solely based upon the brain types. The criminology field is significantly for the criminal’s activities but this emerging field will be the revolution in the justice system. Not just identifying the criminals but also gives the appropriate amount of sentence to offenders based on their brain conditions. It will help in preventing the offences and predict the future crimes because of the advancement shows the pattern even in the childhood. It was to be considered that crimes are only based on the social and environmental but researcher have given the evidence of brain involvement which shows the influence of frontal lobe on the criminal behaviors. The further discussion will answer the question regarding the brain and criminal behavior along with the emergence of techniques through the analysis of both criminal and on-criminal behaviors (Loeber¸ Byrd & Farrington, 2015).Discussion1. The relationship between criminal activity and brain function contains huge controversy and has been scientific debate includes philosophical and legal debate. If this is to be considered that the function of brains plays the role in the criminal activity of any human being then what is position of criminal who is accountable for any offense. The research technologies have gain advancement which can examine the function of brain through the scanning of brain techniques. These techniques have given the mixed result so far which had only increased the debate. The common most result regarding the function of brain showed that those who have committed the crime or that person who is criminal have got the different set of functions of brain as compared to that person who is not an offender. These differences could be possible due to behavior or it is assume that the change is occurred after the crime in being committed (Loeber¸ Byrd & Farrington, 2015). Particularly related to brain parts then the studies showed the criminal behavior occurred when any injury done to frontal lobe of human brain. Magnetic resonance imaging commonly referred as MRI showed in its result when examined the brain that frontal lobe plays its role in the decision and planning behavior of human being including the control to self. The damage on the frontal lobe as shown in the MRI result develop the behavior which influences the human being to engage in social conduct under the abnormal sense. The other reason of considering the frontal lobe plays its role in criminal behavior is because of the influence it gets through the consumption of alcohol. This can give the idea that how frontal lobe plays role when conduction any social act because alcohol also removes the common conscious of taking sane decisions (Smith, 2017).The impairment of ventromedial and amygdala in the frontal context of lobe which in the state of unstable brain condition leads to psychopathy. The number of criminals after being under the study of their brains shows the injury in the past on their frontal lobe. The have suffered the causality which had been the reason of unsuitable behavior in the social conduct. On the other hand, this should also consider shown by the study that not necessarily the injury of frontal lobe always leads to criminal conduct because many cases have shown many people with same injury never conducted any criminal act. This is the reason that the debate is ongoing due to the complex structure of brain and variances in the results. So, creating any link among the criminal behavior and dysfunctional brain in not easy thing. The field of neurolaw debating over the when and how the dysfunction of brain can influence the behavior of person which leads to the rage caused by them. Therefore, further studies should be conducted on this similar cases which are needed in order to make a certain assumption regarding the matter or come to conclusion that how much influential can be the function of brain which helps in turning the person a criminal and to conduct any offense. Considering the facts and results which have shown the role of frontal lobe in criminal behavior is because of the influence it gets through the consumption of alcohol. This can give the idea that how frontal lobe plays role when conduction any social act because alcohol also removes the common conscious of taking sane decisions (Woolhouse, McKinlay & Grace, 2017).2. Several of the researches have been conducted in the field of neurosciences to solve the question of which parts can be the influential reason in criminal behavior. There is one latest and significant research which had presented few evidences that here are few brain types which are different from rest of the population and those brains are in criminals. Along with the understanding it provides to understand and evaluate the reason behind the criminal behaviors, it also arises the questions related to moral approach of dealing such criminals and crimes. These evidence can be the guideline to society for taking the decision under the moral use of this knowledge (Woolhouse, McKinlay & Grace, 2017).The minds of criminal which is provided by the recent study that personality disorder specifically being the antisocial 21 person to whom study was being conducted showed the signs of criminal behavior. The evidence provided by the study showed such minds often ignore the moral approach regarding the right and wrong violates and conduct crimes. The specific part of brain that is middle frontal and frontal lobe with lack of gyrus in the anti-social individuals with no other metal problems been the reason of this behavior. The psychopath in result of anti-social behavior created deformation in the parts of brain and that deformation is called amygdala which in result educes the size of brain as compared to normal human being brain. The deformation mentioned amygdala is the emotion and the size which reduced due to being anti-social leads to lack of emotion and that what is psychopath. The emotions are remorse, guilt and empathy as shown in the study (Ray & Richardson, 2017).The difference in the brain whether because of deformation or any other reason if compare to those who haven’t committed any offense is because of difference in behavior. The study which is indication this result differentiated the people living in o different set of environments. Furthermore, this study which is conducted includes the test of emotions such as fear and the reaction to fear both mentally or physical. The lack of ear from those people who were part of the study later in lives turned into criminals and those who feared with visible response mentally or physically lead to normal lives. The clear differences in the biological structure of brain under neurological base of crime showed that the significant differences were found in those who have never committed any crime to those who have committed serious crimes of offense in their lives. The study also suggest the it is not compulsory that all anti-social behavior people and psychopath are criminals or they have always committed serious crimes but those who have been part of any criminal offense were found to have differences in their brains. All the difference which have been witnessed through different studies shows that the tendency in the person containing such traits will be visible in the early age of life even before the person engage themselves in the crime or offense. Following the results and finding can provide great help in preventing the crimes and maintaining order by a proactive approach. The risk of becoming a potential crime can be seen and assume during the age from seven to twelve even before the crime is being committed by them. While considering the fact that it can possibly change during their later lives (Barnes, Boutwell & Beaver, 2015).After the findings of different research, it raises the question of ethical choice. Those children who have the tendency of turning into psychopath or social-introvert needs the treatment because the doctors are being hesitant regarding it. This is because it only tells the possibility rather the certainty and they haven’t committed crime so why doctors would put them under the suggested treatments (Rusconi et al., 2016).3. The images which were took under the research in order to find out the significance and analysis that what role the function and structure of brain plays in the human behavior. The images clearly indicates that there clear differences among the brain structure of criminals and non-criminals. The findings of this research as shown by the research explains the impulsive and callous behavior of anti-social or psychopath’s behavior in conducting the crime or offense. The prefrontal cortex and the frontal lobe have the reduced connection which stops or eliminates the emotions such as ear and emotion which leads to crimes. The impairment of ventromedial and amygdala in the frontal context of lobe which in the state of unstable brain condition leads to psychopathy. The number of criminals after being under the study of their brains shows the injury in the past on their frontal lobe. The have suffered the causality which had been the reason of unsuitable behavior in the social conduct. On the other hand, this should also consider shown by the study that not necessarily the injury of frontal lobe always leads to criminal conduct because many cases have shown many people with same injury never conducted any criminal act. This is the reason that the debate is ongoing due to the complex structure of brain and variances in the results. So, creating any link among the criminal behavior and dysfunctional brain in not easy thing. The field of neurolaw debating over the when and how the dysfunction of brain can influence the behavior of person which leads to the rage caused by them. Therefore, further studies should be conducted on this similar cases which are needed in order to make a certain assumption regarding the matter or come to conclusion that how much influential can be the function of brain which helps in turning the person a criminal and to conduct any offense.The other reason of considering the frontal lobe plays its role in criminal behavior is because of the influence it gets through the consumption of alcohol. This can give the idea that how frontal lobe plays role when conduction any social act because alcohol also removes the common conscious of taking sane decisions. The difference in the brain whether because of deformation or any other reason if compare to those who haven’t committed any offense is because of difference in behavior. The study which is indication this result differentiated the people living in o different set of environments. Furthermore, this study which is conducted includes the test of emotions such as fear and the reaction to fear both mentally or physical. The lack of fear from those people who were part of the study later in lives turned into criminals and those who feared with visible response mentally or physically lead to normal lives. The clear differences in the biological structure of brain under neurological base of crime showed that the significant differences were found in those who have never committed any crime to those who have committed serious crimes of offense in their lives. The study also suggest the it is not compulsory that all anti-social behavior people and psychopath are criminals or they have always committed serious crimes but those who have been part of any criminal offense were found to have differences in their brains (Gatti & Rocca, 2015).The two types of brain were collected during the study that the white matter have the reduced integrity in the structure shown in diffusion tensor images. It connects with the two areas of the brain which functions as according to the structure. Whereas, the other type of images shows the otherwise result and complete different structure of a normal population and have the emotions which works according to the normal functions (Nivedhini & Periyanayaki, 2017).4. All the recent and new studies which are exploring the function of brains with regards to its connection between the criminal behavior and human brain structure. The main focus is on the brain injuries which as mentioned earlier on the frontal lobe when gets injured in any way influences the behavior of human being. The change in behavior is due to the deformation of the frontal lobe to the other parts of the brain. The decreased connection eliminates the emotions such as fear and empathy so that human behavior tends to involve in the offensive and criminal conducts. The new technique also involves the one called lesions and diagram of wiring similar to human brain. Number of high profile criminal cases were assess for recent studies which showed the similar results done according to the proposed techniques (Perlin & Lynch, 2016).The minds of criminal which is provided by the recent study that personality disorder specifically being the antisocial person to whom study was being conducted showed the signs of criminal behavior. The evidence provided by the study showed such minds often ignore the moral approach regarding the right and wrong violates and conduct crimes. The specific part of brain that is middle frontal and frontal lobe with lack of gyrus in the anti-social individuals with no other metal problems been the reason of this behavior. The psychopath in result of anti-social behavior created deformation in the parts of brain and that deformation is called amygdala which in result educes the size of brain as compared to normal human being brain. The deformation mentioned amygdala is the emotion and the size which reduced due to being anti-social leads to lack of emotion and that what is psychopath. The emotions are remorse, guilt and empathy as shown in the study (Fraldi et al., 2016).The clear differences in the biological structure of brain under neurological base of crime showed that the significant differences were found in those who have never committed any crime to those who have committed serious crimes of offense in their lives. The study also suggest the it is not compulsory that all anti-social behavior people and psychopath are criminals or they have always committed serious crimes but those who have been part of any criminal offense were found to have differences in their brains (Owen & Owen, 2015). 5. The techniques for the brain images help researchers and doctors to identify problem and analyze the human brain and its structure. There are number of techniques approved by all the concerned and hospital facilities for the brain imaging (Meijers, 2015). Following are those techniques:fMRI: Functional magnetic resonance imaging helps in measuring the activities of brain. This technique works by figuring out the oxygen level in blood which occurs neutrally in the brain activity. The level of oxygen helps in detecting the how much the brain is active and the flow of blood in the brain. This technique also helps in looking at the involvement of the brain in different activities of human overall.CT: Computed tomography is the technique which build through different X-ray images of the brain. The procedure in this technique is based on the sliding in and out of a cylindrical shape machine. The machine gives the images of structure and features of the brain through X-ray images.PET: Positron Emission Tomography is the techniques used through the radioactive material which gives the functional map of the brain. The overall image contains the radioactive material but on the image where it shows high radioactive material it determines the brain activity.EEG: Electroencephalography determines the electrical activity which is being record through the device called electrodes placed on the head. This techniques is used mostly by the researchers where before research this method being used in order to go through specific methods.MEG: Magnetoencephalography is another techniques with similar features of electrical activity which determines by the magnetic field. This techniques is used mostly by the researchers and in the clinical practices where before treatment this method being used in order to go through specific methods.NIRS: Near infrared spectroscopy is the technique also being used for the measurement of oxygen level in the brain. By the use of light it worked through infrared.6. Neuroscientists have now started using the pattern and structure of brain through different techniques to identify between the criminal and non-criminal minds. They have discovered significance among both the types of brain as mentioned earlier. The number of criminals after being under the study of their brains shows the injury in the past on their frontal lobe. The have suffered the causality which had been the reason of unsuitable behavior in the social conduct. On the other hand, this should also consider shown by the study that not necessarily the injury of frontal lobe always leads to criminal conduct because many cases have shown many people with same injury never conducted any criminal act. This is the reason that the debate is ongoing due to the complex structure of brain and variances in the results. So, creating any link among the criminal behavior and dysfunctional brain in not easy thing. The field of neurolaw debating over the when and how the dysfunction of brain can influence the behavior of person which leads to the rage caused by them. Therefore, further studies should be conducted on this similar cases which are needed in order to make a certain assumption regarding the matter or come to conclusion that how much influential can be the function of brain which helps in turning the person a criminal and to conduct any offense (Perez, Rubinstein & Dulac, 2016).The lack of fear from those people who were part of the study later in lives turned into criminals and those who feared with visible response mentally or physically lead to normal lives. The clear differences in the biological structure of brain under neurological base of crime showed that the significant differences were found in those who have never committed any crime to those who have committed serious crimes of offense in their lives. The study also suggest the it is not compulsory that all anti-social behavior people and psychopath are criminals or they have always committed serious crimes but those who have been part of any criminal offense were found to have differences in their brains (Vaughn et al., 2014).The researchers also emphasized the legal matter should also consider the results shown in their results. Before taking decision, the result will help to determine what sentence should be given to offenders. The change in the brain types helped a lot in identifying the whether the intension was based upon the criminal mind set which can be seen through the results of research. The injury which have been mentioned earlier shows the front lobe of criminals are different from the normal people. It’s a challenge for both of the fields’ law enforcement and also for the doctors to collaborate on such issues (Heylen et al., 2015). ConclusionsThe conclusion remarks are based the research work so far been assumed on the predictions but it emergence is helping health care and criminal department to deal with the behaviors influencing the society rather been only influenced by it. It was to be considered that crimes are only based on the social and environmental but researcher have given the evidence of brain involvement which shows the influence of frontal lobe on the criminal behaviors.The research technologies have gain advancement which can examine the function of brain through the scanning of brain techniques. These techniques have given the mixed result so far which had only increased the debate. The common most result regarding the function of brain showed that those who have committed the crime or that person who is criminal have got the different set of functions of brain as compared to that person who is not an offender. These differences could be possible due to behavior or it is assume that the change is occurred after the crime in being committed. Several of the researches have been conducted in the field of neurosciences to solve the question of which parts can be the influential reason in criminal behavior. There is one latest and significant research which had presented few evidences that here are few brain types which are different from rest of the population and those brains are in criminals. The findings of this research as shown by the research explains the impulsive and callous behavior of anti-social or psychopath’s behavior in conducting the crime or offense. The prefrontal cortex and the frontal lobe have the reduced connection which stops or eliminates the emotions such as ear and emotion which leads to crimes. The impairment of ventromedial and amygdala in the frontal context of lobe which in the state of unstable brain condition leads to psychopathy. All the recent and new studies which are exploring the function of brains with regards to its connection between the criminal behavior and human brain structure. The main focus is on the brain injuries which as mentioned earlier on the frontal lobe when gets injured in any way influences the behavior of human being. The techniques for the brain images fMRI, CTP, ETE, EGM, EG and NIRS. The number of criminals after being under the study of their brains shows the injury in the past on their frontal lobe. The have suffered the causality which had been the reason of unsuitable behavior in the social conduct. On the other hand, this should also consider shown by the study that not necessarily the injury of frontal lobe always leads to criminal conduct because many cases have shown many people with same injury never conducted any criminal act. ReferencesLoeber, R., Byrd, A. L., & Farrington, D. P. 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New perspectives on genomic imprinting, an essential and multifaceted mode of epigenetic control in the developing and adult brain. Annual review of neuroscience, 39, 347-384. Vaughn, M. G., Salas‐Wright, C. P., DeLisi, M., & Perron, B. (2014). Correlates of traumatic brain injury among juvenile offenders: A multi‐site study. Criminal behaviour and mental health, 24(3), 188-203. Heylen, B., Pauwels, L. J., Beaver, K. M., & Ruffinengo, M. (2015). Defending biosocial criminology: On the discursive style of our critics, the separation of ideology and science, and a biologically informed defense of fundamental values. Journal of Theoretical & Philosophical Criminology, 7(1), 83.

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